IHB OpenIR  > 水环境工程研究中心  > 期刊论文
Identification of Molecular Targets for 4,5-Dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) in Teleosts: New Insight into Mechanism of Toxicity
Chen, Lianguo1,2; Au, Doris W. T.3; Hu, Chenyan4; Peterson, Drew R.3; Zhou, Bingsheng2; Qian, Pei-Yuan1
2017-02-07
Source PublicationENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
ISSN0013-936X
Volume51Issue:3Pages:1840-1847
Abstract

Environmental pollutants are capable of concomitantly inducing diverse toxic effects. However, it is largely unknown which effects are directly induced and which effects are secondary, thus calling for definitive identification of the initiating molecular event for a pollutant to elucidate the mechanism of toxicity. In the present study, affinity pull-down assays were used to identify target proteins for 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT), a costal pollutant of emerging concern, in various tissues (e.g., brain, liver, plasma, and gonad) from marine medaka (Olyzias melastigma) and zebrafish (Danio rerio). Pull-down results showed that, in male and female brains from medaka and zebrafish, DCOIT had a consistently high affinity for G protein alpha subunits (G alpha), suggesting the targeted effects of DCOIT on signaling transduction from G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and an extrapolatable mode of action in teleost brains. Validation using recombinant proteins and molecular docking analysis confirmed that binding of DCOIT to G alpha protein competitively inhibited its activation by substrate. Considering the involvement of GPCRs in the regulation of myriad biological processes, including the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal-liver axis, binding of DCOIT to upstream G alpha proteins in the brain may provide a plausible explanation for the diversity of toxic effects resulting from DCOIT challenge, especially abnormal hormonal production through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. A new mechanism of action based on GPCR signaling is thus hypothesized for endocrine disrupting chemicals and warrants further research to clearly elucidate the link between GPCR signaling and endocrine disruption.

DOI10.1021/acs.est.6b05523
Funding OrganizationNatural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences
Indexed BySCI
Language英语
Funding ProjectNatural Science Foundation of China[41576140] ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association[COMR-RDA12SC01] ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences[XDB14040103]
WOS Research AreaEngineering ; Environmental Sciences & Ecology
WOS SubjectEngineering, Environmental ; Environmental Sciences
WOS IDWOS:000393738700095
WOS KeywordMEDAKA ORYZIAS-MELASTIGMA ; ANTIFOULING COMPOUND BUTENOLIDE ; CHRONIC EXPOSURE ; RISK-ASSESSMENT ; SEA-URCHIN ; RECEPTOR ; PATHWAY ; GNRH ; PITUITARY ; EXPRESSION
PublisherAMER CHEMICAL SOC
Funding OrganizationNatural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences
Citation statistics
Cited Times:10[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/33012
Collection水环境工程研究中心_期刊论文
Corresponding AuthorZhou, Bingsheng; Qian, Pei-Yuan
Affiliation1.Hong Kong Univ Sci & Technol, Div Life Sci, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, Peoples R China
2.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Hydrobiol, State Key Lab Freshwater Ecol & Biotechnol, Wuhan 430072, Peoples R China
3.City Univ Hong Kong, Dept Biol & Chem, State Key Lab Marine Pollut, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Peoples R China
4.Wuhan Inst Technol, Sch Chem & Environm Engn, Wuhan 430072, Peoples R China
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Chen, Lianguo,Au, Doris W. T.,Hu, Chenyan,et al. Identification of Molecular Targets for 4,5-Dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) in Teleosts: New Insight into Mechanism of Toxicity[J]. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY,2017,51(3):1840-1847.
APA Chen, Lianguo,Au, Doris W. T.,Hu, Chenyan,Peterson, Drew R.,Zhou, Bingsheng,&Qian, Pei-Yuan.(2017).Identification of Molecular Targets for 4,5-Dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) in Teleosts: New Insight into Mechanism of Toxicity.ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY,51(3),1840-1847.
MLA Chen, Lianguo,et al."Identification of Molecular Targets for 4,5-Dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) in Teleosts: New Insight into Mechanism of Toxicity".ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 51.3(2017):1840-1847.
Files in This Item: Download All
File Name/Size DocType Version Access License
acs.est.6b05523.pdf(6894KB)期刊论文出版稿开放获取CC BY-NC-SAView Download
Related Services
Recommend this item
Bookmark
Usage statistics
Export to Endnote
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[Chen, Lianguo]'s Articles
[Au, Doris W. T.]'s Articles
[Hu, Chenyan]'s Articles
Baidu academic
Similar articles in Baidu academic
[Chen, Lianguo]'s Articles
[Au, Doris W. T.]'s Articles
[Hu, Chenyan]'s Articles
Bing Scholar
Similar articles in Bing Scholar
[Chen, Lianguo]'s Articles
[Au, Doris W. T.]'s Articles
[Hu, Chenyan]'s Articles
Terms of Use
No data!
Social Bookmark/Share
File name: acs.est.6b05523.pdf
Format: Adobe PDF
All comments (0)
No comment.
 

Items in the repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.