Unisexual polyploid vertebrates are commonly known to reproduce by gynogenesis, parthenogenesis, or hybridogenesis. One clone of polyploid Carassius gibelio has been revealed to possess multiple modes of unisexual gynogenesis and sexual reproduction, but the cytological and developmental mechanisms have remained unknown. In this study, normal meiosis completion was firstly confirmed by spindle co-localization of beta-tubulin and Spindlin. Moreover, three types of various nuclear events and development behaviors were revealed by DAPI staining and BrdU-incorporated immunofluorescence detection during the first mitosis in the fertilized eggs by three kinds of different sperms. They include normal sexual reproduction in response to sperm from the same clone male, typical unisexual gynogenesis in response to sperm from the male of another species Cyprinus carpio, and an unusual hybrid-similar development mode in response to sperm from another different clone male. Based on these findings, we have discussed cytological and developmental mechanisms on multiple reproduction modes in the polyploid fish, and highlighted evolutionary significance of meiosis completion and evolutionary consequences of reproduction mode diversity in polyploid vertebrates.
Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA08030201)
; earmarked fund for Modern Agro-industry Technology Research System(NYCYTX-49)
; National Key Basic Research Program(2010CB126301)
; National Natural Science Foundation of China(31123001)
; Open Project of State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology(2011FB04)
; Autonomous Project of State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology(2011FBZ17)