Increasing reports of cylindrospermopsins (CYNs) in freshwater ecosystems have promoted the demand for identifying all of the potential CYN-producing cyanobacterial species. The present study explored the phylogenetic distribution and evolution of cyr genes in cyanobacterial strains and water samples from China. Four Cylindrospermopsis strains and two Raphidiopsis strains were confirmed to produce CYNs. Mutant cyrI and cyrK genes were observed in these strains. Cloned cyr gene sequences from eight water bodies were clustered with cyr genes from Cylindrospermopsis and Raphidiopsis (C/R group) in the phylogenetic trees with high similarities (99%). Four cyrI sequence types and three cyrJ sequence types were observed to have different sequence insertions and repeats. Phylogenetic analysis of the rpoC1 sequences of the C/R group revealed four conserved clades, namely, clade I, clade II, clade III, and clade V. High sequence similarities (>97%) in each clade and a divergent clade IV were observed. Therefore, CYN producers were sporadically distributed in congeneric and paraphyletic C/R group species in Chinese freshwater ecosystems. In the evolution of cyr genes, intragenomic translocations and intergenomic transfer between local Cylindrospermopsis and Raphidiopsis were emphasized and probably mediated by transposases. This research confirms the existence of CYN-producing Cylindrospermopsis in China and reveals the distinctive variations of cyr genes.
1.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Hydrobiol, Key Lab Algal Biol, Wuhan, Peoples R China 2.Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China 3.Hunan Agr Univ, Resources & Environm Coll, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China 4.Hunan Agr Univ, Hunan Prov Key Lab Crop Germplasm Innovat & Utili, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China 5.Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Inst Biofis Carlos Chagas Filho, BR-21941 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil
Jiang, Yongguang; Xiao, Peng; Yu, Gongliang; Shao, Jihai; Liu, Deming; Azevedo, Sandra M. F. O.; Li, Renhui.Sporadic Distribution and Distinctive Variations of Cylindrospermopsin Genes in Cyanobacterial Strains and Environmental Samples from Chinese Freshwater Bodies,APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY,2014,():