Possessing three circular chromosomes is a distinct genomic characteristic of Burkholderia cenocepacia AU 1054, a clinically important pathogen in cystic fibrosis. In this study, base composition, codon usage and functional role category were analyzed in the B. cenocepacia AU 1054 genome. Although no bias in the base and codon usage was detected between any two chromosomes, function differences did exist in the genes of each chromosome. Similar base composition and differential functional role categories indicated that genes on these three chromosomes were relatively stable and that a proper division of labor was established. Based on variations in the base or codon usage, four small gene clusters were observed in all of the genes. Multivariate analysis revealed that protein hydrophobicity played a predominant role in shaping base usage bias, while horizontal gene transfer and the gene expression level were the two most important factors that affected the codon usage bias. Interestingly, we also found that these gene clusters were correlated with different biological functions: (i) 45 pyrimidine-leading-codon preferred genes were predominantly involved in regulatory function; (ii) most drug resistance-related genes involved in 826 genes that coding for hydrophobic proteins; (iii) most of the 111 horizontal transfer genes were responsible for genomic plasticity; and (iv) 73 highly expressed genes (predicted by their codon adaptation index values) showed environmental adaptation to cystic fibrosis. Our results showed that genes with base or codon usage bias were affected by mutational pressure and natural selection, and their functions could contribute to drug assistance and transmissible activity in B. cenocepacia.