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Occurrence and distribution of organic trace substances in waters from the Three Gorges Reservoir, China
Wolf, Anja1,2; Bergmann, Axel1; Wilken, Rolf-Dieter1; Gao, Xu3; Bi, Yonghong4; Chen, Hao5; Schueth, Christoph1,2; Wolf, A (reprint author), IWW Water Ctr, Dept Water Resources Management, Moritzstr 26, D-45476 Mulheim, Germany.
2013-10-01
Source PublicationENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH
ISSN0944-1344
Volume20Issue:10Pages:7124-7139
AbstractThis study deals with the evaluation of water quality of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in order to assess its suitability as a raw water source for drinking water production. Therefore, water samples from (1) surface water, (2) tap water, and (3) wastewater treatment plant effluents were taken randomly by 2011-2012 in the area of the TGR and were analyzed for seven different organic contaminant groups (207 substances in total), applying nine different analytical methods. In the three sampled water sources, typical contaminant patterns were found, i.e., pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in surface water with concentrations of 0.020-3.5 mu g/L and 0.004-0.12 mu g/L, disinfection by-products in tap water with concentrations of 0.050-79 mu g/L, and pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment plant effluents with concentrations of 0.020-0.76 mu g/L, respectively. The most frequently detected organic compounds in surface water (45 positives out of 57 samples) were the pyridine pesticides clopyralid and picloram. The concentrations might indicate that they are used on a regular basis and in conjunction in the area of the TGR. Three- and four-ring PAH were ubiquitously distributed, while the poorly soluble five- and six-ring members, perfluorinated compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, were below the detection limit. In general, the detected concentrations in TGR are in the same range or even lower compared to surface waters in western industrialized countries, although contaminant loads can still be high due to a high discharge. With the exception of the two pesticides, clopyralid and picloram, concentrations of the investigated organic pollutants in TGR meet the limits of the Chinese Standards for Drinking Water Quality GB 5749 (Ministry of Health of China and Standardization Administration of China 2006) and the European Union (EU) Council Directive 98/83/EC on the quality of water intended for human consumption (The Council of the European Union 1998), or rather, the EU Directive on environmental quality standards in the field of water policy (The European Parliament and The Council of the European Union 2008). Therefore, the suggested use of surface water from TGR for drinking water purposes is a valid option. Current treatment methods, however, do not seem to be efficient since organic pollutants were detected in significant concentrations in purified tap water.; This study deals with the evaluation of water quality of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in order to assess its suitability as a raw water source for drinking water production. Therefore, water samples from (1) surface water, (2) tap water, and (3) wastewater treatment plant effluents were taken randomly by 2011-2012 in the area of the TGR and were analyzed for seven different organic contaminant groups (207 substances in total), applying nine different analytical methods. In the three sampled water sources, typical contaminant patterns were found, i.e., pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in surface water with concentrations of 0.020-3.5 mu g/L and 0.004-0.12 mu g/L, disinfection by-products in tap water with concentrations of 0.050-79 mu g/L, and pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment plant effluents with concentrations of 0.020-0.76 mu g/L, respectively. The most frequently detected organic compounds in surface water (45 positives out of 57 samples) were the pyridine pesticides clopyralid and picloram. The concentrations might indicate that they are used on a regular basis and in conjunction in the area of the TGR. Three- and four-ring PAH were ubiquitously distributed, while the poorly soluble five- and six-ring members, perfluorinated compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, were below the detection limit. In general, the detected concentrations in TGR are in the same range or even lower compared to surface waters in western industrialized countries, although contaminant loads can still be high due to a high discharge. With the exception of the two pesticides, clopyralid and picloram, concentrations of the investigated organic pollutants in TGR meet the limits of the Chinese Standards for Drinking Water Quality GB 5749 (Ministry of Health of China and Standardization Administration of China 2006) and the European Union (EU) Council Directive 98/83/EC on the quality of water intended for human consumption (The Council of the European Union 1998), or rather, the EU Directive on environmental quality standards in the field of water policy (The European Parliament and The Council of the European Union 2008). Therefore, the suggested use of surface water from TGR for drinking water purposes is a valid option. Current treatment methods, however, do not seem to be efficient since organic pollutants were detected in significant concentrations in purified tap water.
SubtypeArticle
KeywordThree Gorges Yangtze Water Quality Drinking Water Organic Pollutants
Department[Wolf, Anja ; Bergmann, Axel ; Wilken, Rolf-Dieter ; Schueth, Christoph] IWW Water Ctr, Dept Water Resources Management, D-45476 Mulheim, Germany ; [Wolf, Anja ; Schueth, Christoph] Tech Univ Darmstadt, Inst Appl Geosci, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany ; [Gao, Xu] Chongqing Univ, Fac Urban Construct & Environm Engn, Chongqing 400045, Peoples R China ; [Bi, Yonghong] Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Hydrobiol, Wuhan 430072, Peoples R China ; [Chen, Hao] Chinese Res Inst Environm Sci, State Environm Protect Key Lab Estuarine & Coasta, Beijing 100012, Peoples R China
DOI10.1007/s11356-013-1929-x
WOS HeadingsScience & Technology ; Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Funding OrganizationFederal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany ; Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany ; Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany ; Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany
Indexed BySCI
Language英语
WOS Research AreaEnvironmental Sciences & Ecology
WOS SubjectEnvironmental Sciences
WOS IDWOS:000324815100040
WOS KeywordPOLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS ; YANGTZE-RIVER ESTUARY ; SURFACE SEDIMENTS ; ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES ; POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYLS ; UNITED-STATES ; DAM ; WUHAN ; AREA ; ANTIBIOTICS
Funding OrganizationFederal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany ; Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany ; Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany ; Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany
Citation statistics
Cited Times:20[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/19622
Collection藻类生物学及应用研究中心_期刊论文
Corresponding AuthorWolf, A (reprint author), IWW Water Ctr, Dept Water Resources Management, Moritzstr 26, D-45476 Mulheim, Germany.
Affiliation1.IWW Water Ctr, Dept Water Resources Management, D-45476 Mulheim, Germany
2.Tech Univ Darmstadt, Inst Appl Geosci, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany
3.Chongqing Univ, Fac Urban Construct & Environm Engn, Chongqing 400045, Peoples R China
4.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Hydrobiol, Wuhan 430072, Peoples R China
5.Chinese Res Inst Environm Sci, State Environm Protect Key Lab Estuarine & Coasta, Beijing 100012, Peoples R China
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Wolf, Anja,Bergmann, Axel,Wilken, Rolf-Dieter,et al. Occurrence and distribution of organic trace substances in waters from the Three Gorges Reservoir, China[J]. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH,2013,20(10):7124-7139.
APA Wolf, Anja.,Bergmann, Axel.,Wilken, Rolf-Dieter.,Gao, Xu.,Bi, Yonghong.,...&Wolf, A .(2013).Occurrence and distribution of organic trace substances in waters from the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH,20(10),7124-7139.
MLA Wolf, Anja,et al."Occurrence and distribution of organic trace substances in waters from the Three Gorges Reservoir, China".ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH 20.10(2013):7124-7139.
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