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题名: Pharmaceuticals in Tap Water: Human Health Risk Assessment and Proposed Monitoring Framework in China
作者: Leung, Ho Wing1, 2; Jin, Ling1, 2, 3; Wei, Si4; Tsui, Mirabelle Mei Po1, 2; Zhou, Bingsheng5; Jiao, Liping6, 7; Cheung, Pak Chuen1, 2; Chun, Yiu Kan1, 2; Murphy, Margaret Burkhardt1, 2; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing1, 2
通讯作者: Lam, PKS (reprint author), City Univ Hong Kong, 6213 CYC Bldg,83 Tat Chee Ave, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
关键词: China ; indicator ; life stage ; pharmaceuticals ; risk assessment ; tap water
刊名: ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PERSPECTIVES
发表日期: 2013-07-01
DOI: 10.1289/ehp.1206244
卷: 121, 期:7, 页:839-846
收录类别: SCI
文章类型: Article
部门归属: [Leung, Ho Wing; Jin, Ling; Tsui, Mirabelle Mei Po; Cheung, Pak Chuen; Chun, Yiu Kan; Murphy, Margaret Burkhardt; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing] City Univ Hong Kong, State Key Lab Marine Pollut, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China; [Leung, Ho Wing; Jin, Ling; Tsui, Mirabelle Mei Po; Cheung, Pak Chuen; Chun, Yiu Kan; Murphy, Margaret Burkhardt; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing] City Univ Hong Kong, Dept Biol & Chem, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China; [Jin, Ling] Univ Queensland, Natl Res Ctr Environm Toxicol, Brisbane, Qld, Australia; [Wei, Si] Nanjing Univ, Sch Environm, State Key Lab Pollut Control & Resource Reuse, Nanjing 210008, Jiangsu, Peoples R China; [Zhou, Bingsheng] Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Hydrobiol, State Key Lab Freshwater Ecol & Biotechnol, Wuhan, Peoples R China; [Jiao, Liping] State Ocean Adm, Inst Oceanog 3, Xiamen, Peoples R China; [Jiao, Liping] State Ocean Adm, Key Lab Global Change & Marine Atmospher Chem, Xiamen, Peoples R China
WOS标题词: Science & Technology ; Life Sciences & Biomedicine
资助者: National Natural Science Foundation of China-Research Grants Committee Joint Research Scheme [N_CityU127/12]; NSFC [21007022, 20890113]; Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education [20100091120013]
类目[WOS]: Environmental Sciences ; Public, Environmental & Occupational Health ; Toxicology
研究领域[WOS]: Environmental Sciences & Ecology ; Public, Environmental & Occupational Health ; Toxicology
摘要: BACKGROUND: Pharmaceuticals are known to contaminate tap water worldwide, but the relevant human health risks have not been assessed in China. OBJECTIVES: We monitored 32 pharmaceuticals in Chinese tap water and evaluated the life-long human health risks of exposure in order to provide information for future prioritization and risk management. METHODS: We analyzed samples (n = 113) from 13 cities and compared detected concentrations with existing or newly-derived safety levels for assessing risk quotients (RQs) at different life stages, excluding the prenatal stage. RESULTS: We detected 17 pharmaceuticals in 89% of samples, with most detectable concentrations (92%) at < 50 ng/L. Caffeine (median-maximum, nanograms per liter: 24.4-564), metronidazole (1.8-19.3), salicylic acid (16.6-41.2), clofibric acid (1.2-3.3), carbamazepine (1.3-6.7), and dimetridazole (6.9-14.7) were found in >= 20% of samples. Cities within the Yangtze River region and Guangzhou were regarded as contamination hot spots because of elevated levels and frequent positive detections. Of the 17 pharmaceuticals detected, 13 showed very low risk levels, but 4 (i.e., dimetridazole, thiamphenicol, sulfamethazine, and clarithromycin) were found to have at least one life-stage RQ >= 0.01, especially for the infant and child life stages, and should be considered of high priority for management. We propose an indicator-based monitoring framework for providing information for source identification, water treatment effectiveness, and water safety management in China. CONCLUSION: Chinese tap water is an additional route of human exposure to pharmaceuticals, particularly for dimetridazole, although the risk to human health is low based on current toxicity data. Pharmaceutical detection and application of the proposed monitoring framework can be used for water source protection and risk management in China and elsewhere.
英文摘要: BACKGROUND: Pharmaceuticals are known to contaminate tap water worldwide, but the relevant human health risks have not been assessed in China.
关键词[WOS]: PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS ; DRINKING-WATER ; WASTE-WATER ; TREATMENT-PLANT ; SURFACE WATERS ; REMOVAL ; ANTIBIOTICS ; ENVIRONMENT ; CONTAMINATION ; INDICATORS
语种: 英语
WOS记录号: WOS:000323711000024
ISSN号: 0091-6765
Citation statistics:
内容类型: 期刊论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/19596
Appears in Collections:水环境工程研究中心_期刊论文

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作者单位: 1.City Univ Hong Kong, State Key Lab Marine Pollut, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China
2.City Univ Hong Kong, Dept Biol & Chem, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China
3.Univ Queensland, Natl Res Ctr Environm Toxicol, Brisbane, Qld, Australia
4.Nanjing Univ, Sch Environm, State Key Lab Pollut Control & Resource Reuse, Nanjing 210008, Jiangsu, Peoples R China
5.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Hydrobiol, State Key Lab Freshwater Ecol & Biotechnol, Wuhan, Peoples R China
6.State Ocean Adm, Inst Oceanog 3, Xiamen, Peoples R China
7.State Ocean Adm, Key Lab Global Change & Marine Atmospher Chem, Xiamen, Peoples R China
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