From May to June in 2002, parent fish of Pelteobagrus vachelli were captured in the upper reaches of Yangtze River at Luzhou and Hejiang of Sichuan Province. Artificial propagations were carried out to obtain fertilized eggs for the observation on the postembryonic development. Postembryonic ontogeny of P. vachelli could be divided into three periods, namely yolk-sac larva, late-stage larva, and juvenile. The newly-hatched larva was pale yellow, lying at the bottom quietly, with 40 pairs of muscle nodes and a mean of 5.2 mm in total length. When water temperature ranged from 20 to 22 degrees of centigrade, mouth formed on the third day after hatching, and the larvae began to feed on the seventh day. Yolk was exhausted on the ninth day, indicating the end of yolk-sac period, while the larva was 12 mm long in average. In late-stage larva period, pectoral fin, caudal fin, anal fin, dorsal fin, and ventral fin developed in sequence. Late-stage larva period ended when fin-folds vanished. After developing and growing for 30 days, it came into the juvenile period. The juvenile was 37 mm in total length, with similar morphological characters and ecological habit to those of adult.