Vertical distributions of species of nitrogen and phosphorus in the sediments of three sampling sites in Lake Donghu were examined and analyzed. pH was combined to be studied at the same time. The results showed that the pH values in sediments were lower than those in overlying water and decreased with depth. The highest concentration of TN and TP occurred in Station 1, where suffered from heavy domestic sewerage. The lowest concentration of TP and TN presented to Station 2, which is located at the center of Lake Donghu. The concentrations of dissolved ammoniac nitrogen (DAN) and dissolved nitrate nitrogen (DNN) of station I were higher than the other stations. In recent years, along with the pollution treatment measures, the concentration of TN and TP in station 1 presented a trend of decline. However, the concentration of TN and TP ascends very fast in station 3 and it has been as high as station 1 on the surface sediments. Although phosphorus is the most restricting nutritious element all the same, the concentration of TN descended greatly in the last two decades because of the combined effect of nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removing bacteria. As a result, the N/P ratio is only about 3.