The glyptosternoid fishes are freshwater catfishes belonging to the family Sisoridae. There are 9 genera containing 28 species in glyptosternoid fishes. This group can be identified from other sisorid fishes by the following main three characters: the last unbranched pectoral fin ray bearing many pointed protusions which are unmineralized bony structure along the anterior margin which are enveloped in the skin; the lack of an adhesive organ on the breast; and the horizontal insertion of the pectoral and ventral fins. These characters appear to be adaptations to the fast running brooks at high altitudes or at the base of the hills, where most of these catfish are found. The phylogenetic analysis based on 60 osteological characters was run with the Hennig 86 program; only one cladogram was produced. The following relationships of glyptosternoid fishes are hypothesized: (1) The glyptosternoid fishes form a monophyletic group which is defined by 13 apomorphies; (2) Among glyptosternoids Glyptosternum is the most primitive genus; it bears many plesiomorphies; (3) Some external characters are interpreted as ecological adaption result. They are incongruent with the evolutionary polarity stemmed from the osteology. Examples are the posterior labial fold and the mouth sucker, these had have been treated as the systematic characters and used to produced evolutionary tree; (4) Many of the characters which occur in a group of taxa including Exostoma, Glaridoglanis, Pseudexostoma and Oreoglanis which appears to have gained a number of derived features by convergence. But the character analysis indicated that some specialized characters of the Exostoma and Glaridoglanis are derived directly from the primitive state, they have not systematic relationships with the Pseudexostoma and Oreoglanis (having the mouth sucker, continuous labial fold); (5) The genus Pareuchiloglanis is not monophyletic; it formes a monophyly only with Pseudexostoma and Oreoglanis.