The present study was carried out in 1995-1996 in Changjiang River basins. Based on soil and benthic samples taken more or less at random, altogether 114 species belonging to 71 genera, 29 families and 8 orders were identified, including 57 new records in China. Ecologically, a comparison of the habitats was made. Despite the most ordinary Dorylaimida, the predominant orders in different habitats were Rhabditida in forest litter, Mononchida in moss, Enoplida in bottom sediment and Araeolaimida in aquatic vegetation. Of the species examined, 24.6% were strictly limnicolous, 21.9% were terricolous, and the rest were likely amphibious.