Tang, Q.-Y., Liu, S.-Q., Yu, D., Liu, H.-Z. & Danley, P.D. (2012) Mitochondrial capture and incomplete lineage sorting in the diversification of balitorine loaches (Cypriniformes, Balitoridae) revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Zoologica Scripta, 41, 233-247. Understanding the diversification of species is a central goal of evolutionary biological studies. One powerful tool to investigate the speciation process is molecular systematics. Here, we use molecular methods to investigate the evolution of balitorine loaches belonging to two genera, Lepturichthys and Jinshaia. Both genera contain only two species (Lepturichthys fimbriata, Lepturichthys dolichopterus and Jinshaia sinensis and Jinshaia abbreviata), all of which are endemic to China. These species share many morphological and ecological characters and exhibit overlapping distributions in the Upper Yangtze River. In this study, we used two mitochondrial genes (Cytb and COI) and one nuclear gene (RAG1) to investigate the phylogenetic relationships within and between these two genera. Phylogenetic analyses and network construction based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes consistently supported the monophyly of Jinshaia. In contrast, the mitochondrial and nuclear genes yielded conflicting results in Lepturichthys. The phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial sequences identify two distinct Lepturichthys lineages, Lepturichthys A and Lepturichthys B. Lepturichthys A includes most of L. fimbriata individuals from the Upper Yangtze River and is the sister group to all Jinshaia species. Lepturichthys B consists of the remaining L. fimbriata individuals from the Upper and Middle Yangtze River, and all L. dolichopterus individuals from the Minjiang River in Southeastern China. However, the analysis of the nuclear sequence indicates that the genus Lepturichthys is monophyletic and is only distantly related to Jinshaia. This incongruence suggests that introgressive hybridization might have occurred between L. fimbriata (Lepturichthys A) and Jinshaia species. As a result of this hybridization event, L. fimbriata captured the mitochondrial genome of the sympatric Jinshaia species. This capture event appears to have occurred at least 1.74 million years ago. Additionally, L. fimbriata appears to be paraphyletic; the nuclear data indicated that L. dolichopterus forms a monophyletic clade nested within L. fimbriata. Because L. dolichopterus and L. fimbriata are allopatric and hybridization may not be possible, we suggest that the observed paraphyly of L. fimbriata is a product of incomplete lineage sorting. In addition, the reciprocal monophyly of J. sinensis and J. abbreviata could not be resolved. This may be the result of interspecific hybridization as these species occur sympatrically. However, incomplete lineage sorting may have caused the observed topology of the Jinshaia species. The data presented here illustrate the complex evolutionary history of the balitorine loach species: intergeneric hybridization and interspecific hybridization have likely occurred in this lineage. In addition, possible incomplete lineage sorting may further obscure the evolutionary history of this group. The complex relationships of the balitorine loaches provide a rich evolutionary system to study the creation of sympatric and sister species.
Tang, Q.-Y., Liu, S.-Q., Yu, D., Liu, H.-Z. & Danley, P.D. (2012) Mitochondrial capture and incomplete lineage sorting in the diversification of balitorine loaches (Cypriniformes, Balitoridae) revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Zoologica Scripta, 41, 233-247.
1.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Hydrobiol, Key Lab Aquat Biodivers & Conservat, Wuhan 430072, Hubei, Peoples R China 2.Baylor Univ, Dept Biol, Waco, TX 76798 USA
Tang, Qiong-Ying; Liu, Si-Qing; Yu, Dan; Liu, Huan-Zhang; Danley, Patrick D..Mitochondrial capture and incomplete lineage sorting in the diversification of balitorine loaches (Cypriniformes, Balitoridae) revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear genes,ZOOLOGICA SCRIPTA,2012,41(3):233-247