Carassius auratus is an invasive species in European waters, comprising a complex of diploid and polyploid forms with different modes of reproduction. However, the evolutionary history and relationships between the diploids and polyploids are still unresolved. In this study, 51.5% diploids and 48.5% triploids, including four triploid males, were discovered among the 363 individuals sampled in Croatia. We used eight microsatellite loci and mitochondrial displacement loop sequences to analyze the structure and origin of populations; and to attempt to infer the evolutionary history of the two different forms in Croatia. Microsatellite analyses revealed high allelic and clonal diversity, corroborating that high propagule vectors can compensate for the negative effects of genetic bottlenecks in successful invasive species. The absence of significant population structuring confirmed recent origin and rapid spreading of populations. No evidence was found for the existence of native European populations. Distances between individuals using both nuclear and mtDNA markers revealed the absence of substantial clustering on the ploidy level, while the split between the different ploidies on population level was only partial, suggesting that the reproductive isolation between the two forms is either of a very recent origin, or that there exists uni-, or bidirectional gene flow between the diploid and triploid forms.