Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of terminally differentiated B-lymphocytes that accounts for similar to 13% of all hematologic cancers. Despite a wealth of knowledge describing the molecular biology of MM as well as significant advances in therapeutics, this disease remains incurable. Since proteins govern the cellular structure and biological function, a wide selection of proteomic approaches holds great promise for increasing our understanding of this disease, such as by investigating the dynamic nature of protein expression, cellular and subcellular distribution, post-translational modifications, and interactions at both the cellular and subcellular levels. The aims of this review are to introduce the available and emerging proteomic technologies that have potential applications in the study of MM and to highlight the current status of proteomic studies of MM. To date, although there have been a limited number of proteomic studies in MM, those performed have provided valuable information with regard to MM diagnosis and therapy. The potential future application of proteomic technologies is expected to provide new avenues in MM diagnostics, individualized therapy design and therapy response surveillance for the clinician.