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题名: 白暨豚和江豚染色体带型及白暨豚DNA的碱基组成的研究
作者: 陈帆
答辩日期: 1993
导师: 刘仁俊
专业: 水生生物学
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
学位: 硕士
关键词: 白暨豚 ; 江豚 ; C-带 ; 限制性内切酶 ; 碱基组成
摘要: 本文研究了分布于我国长江的两种豚类:白暨豚和江豚的染色体带型特性,并与其人鲸类动物作了比较:(1)白暨豚核型:2n=44,XY(♂:13m+18sm+4st+9t) 江豚核型:2n=44,XY(♂:11m+20sm+4st+9t)白暨豚的核仁组织区位于最小一对同源染色体上,此对染色体在早中期常发生联合,与江豚以及一般染色体数为2n=44的鲸类相同;间期核中银染核仁只见到一个。(2)白暨豚属齿鲸亚目、拉河豚科、白暨豚亚科,其G-带约有160条,G-带带发布与须鲸亚目、湎鲸科的长须鲸十分相似。江豚属齿鲸亚目、鼠海豚科,其G-带约有140余条带,其G-带带型分布与齿鲸亚目海豚科的斑原海豚十分相似。同时初步探讨了鲸类的起源问题。(3)首次将限制性内切酶显带技术应用于鲸类,成功地用限制性内切酶HaeⅢ诱导出白暨豚的C-带核型,与常规法C-带的带型分布十分相似。限制性内切酶AluI在江豚st1、st2和t1中诱导出C-带分化,与常规法C-带在这三对同源染色体上的带型分布相同。本实验为鲸类细胞遗传学研究提供了一种新的手段。本文还利用烃性法研究了白暨豚核DNA的Tm值和碱基组成,通过变性速率曲线发现白暨豚的GC碱基分布不均一性较高,存在有较多富含GC的DNA序列。
英文摘要: This thesis studied on characteristics of chromosomal banded karyotype of two dolphin species (Lipotes vexilifer and Neophocaena phocaenoides), which lived in the Changjiang River in China, and compared them with those of some other cetacean species. The result might be briefly summarized as follows: (1) The karyotype of Lipotes was 2n = 44, xy (♂: 13m +18sm + 4st + 9t) , and the karyotypeof Neophocaena was 2n = 44, xy (♂: 11m + 20sm + 4st + 9t). There was only one pair of Ag-NOR sit existing on the smallest pair chromosomes of Lipotes and association of the pair has been observed in early mitosis metaphase, which was the same as that of Neophocaena and some other cetaceans whose chromosome numbers were 2n = 44. Only one silver stained nucleolus was observed in intermitotic nucleus. (2) The number of G-band of Lipotes was about 160, its distribution was similar to Balaenoptera borealis of suborder Mysticeti. But the number of G-banded of Neophocaena was 140 or so, and its distribution was much similar to Stenella dubia of suborder Odontoceti. Basing on these results, the origin of cetaceans was preliminarily discussed. (3) By firstly applying the latest technology of restriction endonuclease C-band of Lipotes was successfully induced with Hae. The results were similar with that of normal C-banded technology. C-band of Neophocaena was also induced in st1, st2 and t1 chromosomal pairs with restriction endonuclease AluI, its distribution was the same as the results by using normal C-banded technology. This work supplied a new method for cytogenetic studies on cetaceans. The thesis also investigated the Tm value and base composition of nuclear DNA of Lipotes by using thermal denaturation method. From differential melting rate profiles of Lipotes, it was found that heterogeneity of base composition of Lipotes was relatively high, and there existed many GC-rich DNA sequences.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12864
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
白暨豚和江豚染色体带型及白暨豚DNA的碱基组成的研究.陈帆[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,1993.20-25
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