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题名: 复合四倍体异育银鲫繁殖细胞学研究
作者: 杨仲安
答辩日期: 1993
导师: 蒋一珪 ; 桂建芳
专业: 遗传学
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
学位: 硕士
摘要: 复合四倍体异育银鲫是异育银鲫与兴国红鲤雄鱼人工繁殖的子代群体中发现的少数四倍体个体。本文对其繁殖细胞学过程进行了较系统的研究,首次在雌核发育四倍体鱼类中探讨了性腺发育、卵子成熟过程,以及受精卵表达两种不同的生殖方工的细胞学特征。一、研究证明复合四倍体异育银鲫含有的单套红鲤染色体组能够协调地参与性细胞的增殖与成熟:1)卵原细胞增殖期约占1/2的卵原细胞能够正常分裂增殖。观察到典型的有丝分裂二极纺锤体,而未发现核物质被排斥的现象。证明在这部分细胞中,细鲤染色体组可以协调地参与卵原细胞的分裂增殖;2)复合四倍体异育银鲫卵母细胞成熟过程的染色体行为与银鲫的基本相同:在成熟单星光和成熟多星光期都出现染色体物质分团现象;都是通过形成三极纺缍体、抑制第一次成熟成分裂的方式使卵子保持体细胞染色体的倍性。表明复合四倍体异育银鲫虽然加入了一套鲤鱼染色体组,但仍保持了雌核发育鱼类的卵子成熟机制。二、研究结果也显示了复合四倍体异育银鲫中红鲤染色体组的异常效应:1)卵原细胞增殖期约1/2的卵原细胞因核固缩而败育;发现有染色体在细胞分裂后期分为三团的现象。在卵子成熟过程中,成熟多星光含有较多小星光,小星光间的联系及其染色体物质的分配均显示无规律性;少数卵子的成熟多星光或二极纺锤体出现在异常位置。表明红鲤染色体组对复合四倍体异育银鲫性细胞增殖、成熟过程中的染色体行为造成异常影响。2)出现了雌性正常发育型、雌雄同体型、雄性不正常发育型及性腺不发育型等不同的性腺发育类型,且不同品系间有明显的性比差异;此外,约35%的成熟卵子无卵膜孔,个别卵子具有两个卵膜孔。显示出红鲤染色体组对复合四倍体异育银鲫的性别分化及精孔细胞发育均产生异常影响。3_受精细胞学观察结果显示复合四倍体异育银鲫仍保持了雌核发育的生殖机制。但因受到红鲤染色体组的影响,复合四倍体异育银鲫卵对两类不同精子应答反应有明显差异:异源精子入卵后呈固缩状态,表现为典型的雌核发育生殖方式;同源精子可原核化并与雌性原核融合,表现为拟两性融合生殖方式,在卵裂时排斥染色体物质而导致胚胎死亡。本文为开展以改善繁殖性状及选择优良生长性状为目标的复合四倍体异育银鲫选 育研究提供了依据。
英文摘要: The present work is concerned with the gonadal development, oogenesis and fertilization of the multiply tetraploid allogynogenetic silver crucian carp which was found in the artificial breeding population of the Carassius auratus gibellio (♀) * Cyrpinus carpio red variety (♂). On the basis of the material so far, we primarily explored the cytological characteristics of the process of gonadal development and oocyte maturation in tetraploid fishes, and found that the multiply tetraploid allogynogenetic silver crucian carp could develop in two different modes. In one hand, It has been established by our observation that the haploid genome of red carp of multiply tetraploid allogynogenetic silver crucian carp could take part in the process of oogenesis coordinatly. 1) About half of the total oogonia, could increase by normal mitosis with a dipolar spindle and their nuclear material could not be excluded out. This result proved that the red carp genome could coordinatly take part in the cell proliferation in these oogonia. 2) The chromosomal behaviors in oocyte of multiply tetraploid allogynogenetic silver crucian carp is identical with that of the crucian carp: the chromosomes divided into some groups at the stage of monaster of maturation and polyaster of maturation, and maintained the oocyte's chromosomal ploidy with 4n by forming a tripolar spindle and inhibiting the first meiosis. These facts showed that the multiply tetraploid allogynogenetic silver crucian carp stabilized the oocyte maturation mechanism of gynogenetic fishes although the haploid genome from red carp was included in. In the other hand, unusual effects of the genome of red carp were observed: 1) About half of the total of oogonia are sterility by condensation of the nuclear hromatin, and a pattern that chromosomes divided into three groups at the anaphase was found; There are more small aster appeared in the polyaster of maturation of the multiply tetraploid allogynogenetic silver crucian carp than that of the crucian carp, and no rules could be found in both of the distribution of chromosomes and the relationship among the small aster. Otherwise, the polyaster of maturation or dipolar spindle appeared in abnormal position in a few ova. These facts reflected the effects of the red carp genome in the multiplication and maturation of germ cell of the multiply tetraploid allogynogenetic silver crucian carp. 2) Four forms occurred in the gonads of mature individuals: the first is completely fertile female; The second is hermaphrodite, some of them, both of the ovary and testes can be found in the same individual and the others should be confirmed by cytological observation. The third, no gonad in the body of these individuls. The fourth, abnormally developed male, cannot produce mature spermatozoa and is completely sterile. Moreover, on some mature eggs (about 35% of the total) from one individual which we observed, no micropylar apparatus was found in the chorion, and some another egs (about 1.4% of the total) have two micropylar apparatus on each one. It prompted the unusual effects of red carp genome in sex differantiation and development of micropylar cell of the multiply tetraploid allogygenetic silver crucian carp. The development process of two groups, multiple tetraploid allogynogenetic silver crucian carp (♀) * crucian carp (♂) and multiple tetraploid allogynogenetic silver rucian carp (♀) * red carp (♂), were observed. It was found that, in the 2nd group. the sperms of the red arp could not decondense and transform into a male pronucleus after having penetrated into the ovum of the multiple tetraploid allogynogenetic silver crucian carp. That is a typical process of the allogynogenesis. But, in the first group, the sperms of crucian carp have general process of decondensation, formation of pronucleus and conjoint with the female pronucleus. It is so similar to the process of the amphimixis that we call it pseudoamphimixis temporarily. Moreover in the first group, it has been found in most sections that some of chromosomes had been excluded outside when most of chromosomes had arranged at the equator of the spindle at medstage of the first cleavage of the fertilized eggs.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12862
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
复合四倍体异育银鲫繁殖细胞学研究.杨仲安[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,1993.20-25
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