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题名: 两种绒螯蟹精母细胞减数分裂染色体的形态、行为比较研究
作者: 余宏俊
答辩日期: 1991
导师: 陆仁后
专业: 水生生物学
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
学位: 硕士
关键词: 中华绒螯蟹 ; 日本绒螯蟹合浦亚种 ; 减数分裂染色体 ; 联会复合体
摘要: 本文用空气干燥法制备减数分裂染色体标本、用表面铺张--硝酸银染色法制备复联会合体标本,在光镜及透射电镜下观察、研究了中华绒螯蟹、日本绒螯蟹合浦亚种精母细胞减数分裂染色体的形态、行为,重点分析了其粗线期联会复合体核型。结果表明:细线期:染色质浓缩成细线状,并定位于核膜一定区域。偶线期:同源染色体开始从端部及着丝粒部位配对、联会,形成联会复合体片段。粗成期:同源染色体配对、联会完毕。二者均观察到73条完整的联会复合体,未发现任何形式的异源或异型联会现象。中华绒螯蟹联会复合体核型为n = 73 = 11m + 7sm + 14st + 10t + 31T,其中第38、39对同源染色体上各有一对NOR_s,日本绒螯蟹合浦亚种联会复合体核型为n = 73 = 8m + 11sm + 14st + 14t + 26T,其中第3,12对同源染色体上各有一对NORs。双线期:同源染色体开始分离,交叉端化。由于二价体上交叉的位置及数目不同,故二价体呈多种形状。在日本绒螯蟹合浦亚种核期分裂相中观察到一个异型二价体。终变期:同源染色体继续分离,大多数二价体上的交叉已移到端部,少数二价体上的交叉端化在进行。中期I:染色体浓缩到最大程度。大多数二价体上已无明显的交叉,呈“点、棒”状或“亚铃”状。个别二价体上仍有交叉,呈“-O-”状。中期II:姊妹染色单体开始分离,染色体呈“亚铃”状或“点、棒”状。经计数日本绒螯蟹合浦亚种染色体或联会复合体数目,确定其染色体数目2n = 146。本文还测算了两种蟹的联会复合体的绝对平均长度,相对平均长度和臂比,并绘制出其联会复合体核型模式图。用“t-test”法分析发现:中华绒螯蟹中有21对,日本绒螯蟹合浦亚种中有35对,序号相邻的两条联会复合体之间,在长度上无显性差异。两种蟹诒相同的两条联会复合体之间,在长度上均无显著性差异。最后本文对两种蟹性控机制,精母细胞染色体的形态、行为特征,SC,核型差异等六个方面进行了讨论。
英文摘要: The morphology and behavior of chromosomes in Eriocheir sinensis and Eriocheir japonica hepuersis spermatocytes during meiosis, as well as SC. karyotype of them at pachytene were studied cmparatively, by light or electron microscope, using the methods of air-drying and air-liquid surface spreading. The results show that: leptotene: chromosomes appeared as threads and each of them was oriented, with one or two ends, in the region of nuclear membrance. Zygotene: homologous began to pair and synapse in the position of telomeres and kinetochores, then segments of SC. formed. Pachytene: paring between homolgues was over, 73 SCs (synaptonemal complexes), were observed in most of primary spermatocytes of the both species, no any allosynapsis or heterosynapsis was observed. SC. karyotype of E. sinensis was n = 73 = 11m + 7sm + 142 + 10t + 31T and that of E. japonica hepuersis was n = 73 = 8m + 11sm + 14st + 14t + 26T. Two NORs were observed in each of the both species, on the homoloques NO. 38、39 in E. sinensis and on the No.3、12 in E. japonica hepuersis. Diplotene: homologues began to disconnect, and terminalization of chiasmata began too. Because of difference of number and position of chiasmata in each of the bivalents, the bivalents presented various shape. One heterotypical bivalent was observed in E.japonica hepuersis. Diakinesis: homologues disconnected continuously, the sites of chiasmata in most of the bivalents had moved to the ends. Metaphase I: Chromosomes condensed in greatest degree. most of the bivalents were dots or bars or dumbbells in shape, chiasmata were observed obviously in a few of the bivalents in both species only, these bivalents were "-O-" in shape. Metaphase II: sister chromotids began to disconnect. chromosomes weredots or bars or dumbbells in shape. The lengths of ten complete sets of SCs were measured and the t-test of two neighbouring SCs were done for each of the two species. the t-test of SCs with the same sequence number in the two species were dome too. The results showed that there was no significant deviation between neighbouring SCs, 21 pairs in E. sinensis and 35 pairs in E. japonica hepuersis, and between SCs with same sequence number in the two species in size. Finally, the sex-determining mechanism of the two mitten crabs, the characteristics of morphology and behavior of meiosis chrosomes, and cytogenetical difference between them, etc. are also discussed in the paper.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12834
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
两种绒螯蟹精母细胞减数分裂染色体的形态、行为比较研究.余宏俊[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,1991.20-25
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