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题名: 两性融合生殖鱼类和雌核发育银鲫卵质诱导精核发育的比较研究
作者: 岳振宇
答辩日期: 1991
导师: 蒋一珪
专业: 遗传学
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
学位: 硕士
关键词: 两性融合生殖鱼 ; 雌核发育银鲫 ; 解凝 ; 原核化发育
摘要: 本文对两性融合生殖鱼类和雌核发育银鲫脱腊卵诱导精核发育进行了详细的细胞学比较研究,首次探讨了雌核发育银鲫卵质控制精核解凝和形成原核的生化特征。(一)详细观察了两性融合生殖鱼类和雌核发育银鲫卵脱膜受精的细胞学行为,发现两者均为多精受精,而在雌核发育银鲫脱膜卵的受精中,精核发育显示出类似于两性融合生殖鱼类脱膜卵受精中精核的早期发育的某些特征,但发育程度低于正常两性融合生殖;两类卵质诱导精核发育的关键差异在于:在两性融合生殖鱼卵中多数精核通过解凝,进而形成原核,而在雌核发育银鲫卵中精核表现一定程度解凝,但进一步的发育受到阻碍,最终极少能形成原核。(二)采用显微注射2去膜精核和细胞学观察等方法,研究了两性融合生殖鱼类和雌核发育银鲫卵质诱导精核发育的有关生化特征。在两性融合生殖鱼类卵质中,一定Ca~(2+)浓度的存在,二硫键的还原作用对于精核的发育显然是必需的;而在雌核发育银鲫卵中,Ca~(2+)的功能和二硫键的还原作用与精核发育受到抑制之间并无直接联系,银鲫卵质中似乎显示出异常的磷酸酯解活性,导臻磷酸化过程无法进行,使精核进一步解凝受到阻碍,在两性融合生殖鱼类受精卵质中,从受精开始到第二次卵裂,精核解凝因子(SNDFs: sperm nucleus decondensation factors)在卵质内一直维持较高活性;精核原核化因子(SPDFs: sperm nucleus development factors)的活性能使在原核融合期或早中期之前注入的去膜精核形成原核。(三)对两种发育类型的鱼卵重质层组分的电镜观察,以及分别与去膜精核混合注入银鲫卵质的研究实验结果显示,两性融合生殖鱼卵重质层中具有大量诱导精核原核化的有关因子,而银鲫卵质中则缺少该因子(或活性极低)。银鲫卵质中还可能缺乏某些与雄性原核的核膜重组装有关的大分子物质。本文为开展以人工干扰雌核发育控制机抽培育新的银鲫优良品种提供了实验依据。
英文摘要: The present paper described the behavior of sperm nuclei incorporated into the dechorioned eggs of both bisexual fish and gynogenetic crucian carp, and explored the biochemical characteristics of the ooplasm in fertilized gynogenetic eggs controlling decondensation and pronuclear development of sperm nucleus. I. The cytological behavior of the sperm nuclei incorporated into dechorioned eggs of both bisexual fish and gynogenetic crucian carp was observed and the result showed polyspermic. The sperm nucleus transformation in fertilized eggs of gynogenetic crucian carp resembled part of that in bisexual eggs during early fertilization and development, nevertheless, it is less developed than in bisexual fertilization. The critic difference of cytoplasm which induce sperm nucleus development in two kinds of eggs lies in that in bisexual eggs, most of the sperm nuclei form pronuclei through decondensation in contrast with the sperm nuclei in gynogenetic eggs arrested at different phase of decondensation and incapable of forming pronuclei. II. The biochemical characteristics during sperm nuclear development induced by the ooplasm of both bisexual fish and gynogenetic crucian carp were analysed using the method of demembraned sperm microinjection and cytological observation. In cytoplasm of bisexual eggs, the presence of certain concentration of Ca~(2+) and the disulfide bond reduction is of necessity to the development of sperm nucleus. But the function of Ca~(2+) and disulfide bond reduction suggest no direct relation to the inhibition of sperm nuclear development by ooplasm of gynogenetic crucian carp, on the other hand, the cytoplasm in gynogenetic eggs appeared abnormality of high phosphatsase activity. The blockage of phosphorylation course results in the failure of further decondensing of sperm nucleus. In cytoplasm of bisexual eggs, SNDFs (sperm nucleus decondensation factors) remain active from fertilization to the second cleavage division; SNDFs (sperm pronucleus development factors) activity can only transform the demembraned sperm into pronucleus when injected prior to pronucleus fusion or early metaphase of the first cleavage division. III. The result of ultrastructure research on the heavy ooplasmic fraction in two kinds of eggs and the studies of heavy ooplasmic fraction injected with demembraned sperm into fertilized eggs of gynogenetic crucian carp indicated that there are plenty of related factors to induce sperm nuclei into pronuclei in heavy fraction of bisexual eggs but not in heavy fraction of gynogenetic eggs. The ooplasm of gynogenetic crucian carp may also lack some high molecules responsible for membrane assembly of male pronucleus.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12828
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
两性融合生殖鱼类和雌核发育银鲫卵质诱导精核发育的比较研究.岳振宇[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,1991.20-25
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