Studies were undertaken to imvestigate the fauna and the community ecology of soil protozoa in Hengshan Mountain during 1987.9-1990.5. Sample sites were elected by chosing the five representative forest types, masson pine forest, cryptomeria forest, coniferous broad leaved mixed forest, long green broad leaved forest and shrub forest in the subtropical forest. 120 species of protozoa were observed including 32 species of phyomastigophon and zoomastigophora, 52 species of Sarcodina and 36 species of ciliophora. Among then, two species (Australothrix simplex, Oxtricha hengshanensis) are new to science, 12 species are first observed in china. A detailed description of new species and new record species were given in the paper. Siol protozoan species are more aboundant under long green broad leaved forest (87 species), but not aboundant under pure forest type such as masson pine forest (59 species). The soil protozoan density in autum is quite great in Hengshan Mountain. The mean density of long green broad leaved forest is 1096n/g and of masson pine forest is 557n/g, (Table) the vertical distribution of soil protosoa shows that most of them including number of species and number of individuals destribute at the surface layer (0-5cm) of the soil. From the up layer to the lower layer, soil protozoan number of individuals gradually decrease. (Table) For the influence on the distribution of soil protozoa, some important ecological factors are soil temperature, moisture, poresity, organic material, vegetation type, elevation and microorganisms.