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题名: 异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)饲料铜锌营养研究
作者: 李金生
答辩日期: 1990
导师: 贺锡勤
专业: 水生生物学
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
学位: 硕士
摘要: 铜锌是两种重要的微量元素,它们在吸收及代谢等方面,具有较为复杂的相互作用。本文以异育银鲫为试验材料,设计了三个实验:(1)用精制的鸡蛋白饲料为基础饲料,添加0、5、15、30、50 ppm锌,研究饲料锌对异育银鲫的影响及锌需要量;(2)在精制的鸡蛋白饲料中,分别添加0、2、4、6、32 ppm的铜,研究饲料铜对异育银鲫的影响及铜需要量;(3)以酷蛋白饲料为基础饲料,设计两个不同的铜水平(15 ppm, 150 ppm)和铜锌比(1:1, 1:4),研究铜锌间的相互作用。异育银鲫锌摄取不足时,表现为生长减慢、食欲下降、食物转化效率低等。摄取不添加锌的基础饲料时,生长率明显低于摄取锌添加50 ppm的组。当锌添加大于15 ppm时。饲料的效率显著高于添加量低于15 ppm的组。血清碱性磷酸酶活性是异育银鲫锌摄取的敏感反映,锌摄取不足时,血清碱性磷酸酶活性下降。摄取低锌饲料的异育银鲫,血液红细胞数编高,饲料锌水平对血红蛋白含量、红细胞比容无影响。喂以不添加锌的基础饲料的组、肝锌水平明显低于添加锌5 ppm以上的组,但当锌添加由5 ppm增至50 ppm,肝锌含量无明显改变。血浆锌浓度在饲料锌添加达50 ppm时,出现显著升高,当锌添加为0-30 ppm时,血浆锌浓度实际上无差异。综上表明,异育银鲫存在强有力的锌内稳机制,它是通过调节内源锌的排出和外源锌的摄入而发生作用的。摄取铜不足的异育银鲫,表现出轻度的贫血症,当饲料铜水平增加时,血液红细胞数升高,饲料铜添加,对生长、血红蛋白水平及红细胞比容无明显作用。肝和血浆铜会计师与饲料铜添加量呈显著的线性正相关。摄取高铜饲料的异育银鲫,其血浆和/或血清转氨酶(GPT、GOT)活性下降。随着饲料铜添加,肝体指数有上升的趋势。锌对铜的吸收和代谢存在明显的指抗作用。摄取高锌饲料的异育银鲫,肝铜水平明显降低。铜对铁的吸收和代谢存在明显的促进作用,摄取高铜饲料的异育银鲫,其血浆水平显著高于摄取低铜饲料的组。研究结果表明,肝不是锌的重要积累器官,摄取高锌饲料的异育银鲫,肝锌含量的升高是非常有限的;但是,肝脏是异育银鲫重要的铜积累组织。综合分析得出异育银鲫饲料铜、锌需要量,铜为4-6 ppm,锌为50 ppm。
英文摘要: Three experiments were conducted to examine(1) dietary zinc and (2) copper requirements, and (3) interaction of dietary copper and zinc in crucian carp fed sempurified egg white diets or casein diets, reared in indoor aquaria for 88, 96, and 84 days respectively. The first in experiment 1 were fed diets containing 0, 5, 30, and 50 mg supplemental zinc/kg diet, while the fish in experiment 2 were fed diets with five supplemental copper levels of 0, 2, 4, 6, and 32 mg/kg diet. The fish in experiment 3 were given either a copper: zinc ratio of 1:1 or 1:4 containing supplemental copper levels of 15 and 150 mg/kg diet respectively. The basal diets in experiment 1 and 2 contained 2. 1 mg zinc/kg diet and 0.8 mg copper/kg diet respectively, and 8.6 mg zinc/kg diet and 1.3 mg copper/kg diet in experiment 3. The concentrations of zinc and copper in the water of all three experiments were 84 ppb and 20.6 ppb. Zinc deficiencies of crucian carp exhibited depressed growth, supressed apetite, and low feed efficiency ratio. The growth rate of the fish fed diets with no supplemental zinc were significantly low as compared to those fed diets containing 50, 30, and 50 mg supplemental zinc/kg diet were found with higher feed efficiencies than those fed diets without supplemental zinc. The activities of serum alkaline phosphatese were decreased in crucian carp with low dietary zinc intake. Red blood count (RBC) values were higher in the fish fed low zine diets than that of control fish. At the end of the experiments, the liver zinc levels were significantly lower in crucian carp fed diets contained 5 mg supplemental zinc/kg diet. The results shown that crucian carp has a zinc homestatic mechanism through regulating zinc incorporation and excretion. The light anemia were observed in crucian carp fed basal diets with no supplemental copper. RBC values were increased in the fish fed diets containing supplemental copper. Growth rate and feed efficiency ration, as well as hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hc) values were not significantly different between the fish fed basal diet and all the fish fed diets containing supplemental copper. Liver and plasma copper levels were positively correlated with dietary copper intake. Plasma or serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activities and glutamic-oxaloacetic transminase (GOT) activities were reduced in the fish fed diets containing high supplemental copper. Hepatosomatic index tended to larger with copper intake increased. Zinc had negative effects on copper absorption and metabolism for crucian carp liver copper levels were decreased in crucian carp fed high zinc diets as compared to those fed low zinc diets. Plasma iron levels were higher in crucian carp fed high copper diets than those fed low copper diets. This indicated that copper had positive effects on iron absorption and metabolism. Based upon the results of present study, the dietary requirements of dietary zinc and copper for crucian carp were found to be 50 and 4 to 6 mg/kg diet respectively.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12806
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)饲料铜锌营养研究.李金生[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,1990.20-25
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