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题名: 鱼类低温适应机制的研究
作者: 曹永长
答辩日期: 1989
导师: 王祖熊
专业: 遗传学
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
学位: 硕士
关键词: 鱼类 ; 低温适应 ; 肝脏 ; 肌肉 ; 线粒体 ; 酶活性 ; 同工酶 ; 脂肪酸 ; 胆固醇 ; 膜流动性
摘要: 1、本文采用分光光度法测量了25℃和10℃适应的草鱼、土鲮鱼、草鲮鱼和对照鲮鱼的肌肉和肝脏组织中四种酶活性的变化。低温适应下草鱼肝脏组织的乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)和琥珀酸脱氢酶(SDH)活性升高、异柠檬酸脱氢酶(IDH)和6-磷酸葡萄糖脱氢酶活性降低;而三组鲮鱼的肝脏和肌肉组织以及草鱼肌肉组织的四种酶活性都升高。这一结果表明,鱼类对低温的适应性反应具有种族特异性和组织特异性。草鱼肝脏组织在低温下发生了代谢途径的重组和转换,而鲮鱼的肌肉组织和肚脏组织以及草鱼的肌肉组织都只采取了增加酶浓度的方式。作者认为,代谢途径的重组和转换机制是比单纯增加酶浓度更为有效的低温适应方式。鲮鱼的这一代谢转换机制可能还不完善,所以适应低温的能力也低。2、采用电泳法分析了四种鱼在不同适应浊度下三种同工酶的变化。超氧化物歧化酶和乳酸脱氢酶同工酶在不同温度适应下没有变化。三种鲮鱼肚脏组织的酯 酶同工酶在不同适应温度下的变是一致的。10℃时EST-2消失而EST-6出现,25℃时EST-6消失而EST-2出现。这一变化表明在低温下鲮鱼肝脏组织的脂肪代谢发生了变化。3、采用气相色谱-质谱联用的方法测量了不同温度适应的鱼类肌肉线粒体脂肪酸组成。不同温度适应的草鱼肌肉线粒体脂肪酸组成有明显差异,低温适应的草鱼和高温适应的草鱼相比,肌肉线粒体中短链脂肪酸(16C和18C)比例下降而长链多不饱和脂肪酸含量增加,脂酰链的平均长度也从25℃时的19.08增加到20.46个碳原子。而鲮鱼的肌肪酸组成在不同适应温度下的变化不明显。本文还测量了不同温度适应的鱼类肌肉线粒体胆固醇含量的变化,发现草鱼和三种鲮鱼肌肉线粒体胆固醇含量在低浊下都有显著下降可以认为:底温适应下的草鱼由于肌肉线粒体的脂肪酸组成和胆固醇含量等发生变化。因而其肌肉线粒体膜的流动性明显增加;鲮鱼肌肉组织线粒体中胆固醇含量虽也减少,但脂肪酸组成变化甚微,因此,鲮鱼肌肉组织线粒体膜流动性的增加有限。这可能也是鲮鱼耐寒能力差的原因之一。4、文章还讨论了混精法提高鲮鱼耐寒能力的原因。从本文所分析的指标看,混精授精法对鲮鱼的低温适应能力有一定程度的改善,但这种改善是不彻底的。最后,作者提出了提高鲮鱼耐寒能力的几条途径。
英文摘要: 1. Spectrophotometric techniques were used to monitor the changes of enzyme activities in liver and muscle tissues of grass carp, mud carp, mixed sperms (grass carp's & mud carp's) inseminated mud carp and control mud carp after thermal acclimation. The concentration of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) were higher, and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) were lower in liver tissues of grass carp acclimated to 10 ℃ than in he corresponding tissues of 25 ℃-acclimated grass carp, which indicating that some metabolic reorganizations must be occurred in liver tissue of grass carp during cold acclimation. All four enzyme concentrations in liver and muscle tissues of mud carp, mixed sperms inseminated mud carp and control mud carp, and muscle tissue of grass carp increased after cold acclimation, indicating that increasing enzyme concentration was the major or only method in liver and muscle tissues of mud carps and muscle tissue of grass carp during cold acclimation. Author be-lieved that the mechanism of metabolic reorganizations is more effective than the way of increasing enzyme concentrations only during cold acclimation, and probably this mechanism is not prefect in the tissues of mud carps. This may be the reason why mud carp could not tolorate low temperatures lower than 7 ℃. 2. Electrophoretic techniques were employed to study the changes of isozymes in tissues of fish acclimated to different temperatures. There was no significant difference observed in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and LDH isozyme patterns of any tissues in fish after thermal acclimation. The changes in the isozyme patterns of esterase (EST) in liver tissues of mud carp, mixed sperms inseminated mud carp and control mud carp indicated that some changes must be occurred in lipid metabolism of liver tissue of mud carps during thermal acclimation. 3. The GC/MS technique was applied to analyse the composition of fatty acids from mitochondria in muscle tissues of fish acclimated to different temperatures. Significant changes of fatty acid compositions were observed in muscle mitochondria of grass carp acclimated to 25 ℃ and 10 ℃. Compared with warm-acclimated grass carp, the ratio of short chain fatty acids (16C & 18C) decreased, and that of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids increased in muscular mitochondria of cold-acclimated grass carp, and the average fatty acyl chain length increased to 20.46C from 19.08C. But little changes of the composition of fatty acids in muscular mitochondria of mud carp, mixed sperms inseminated mud carp and control mud carp acclimated to different temperatures were seen. In the present experiment, the contents of cholesterol in muscular mitochondria of warm- and cold-acclimated fish were determined, and the contents of cholesterol in all of them decreased after cold acclimation. The fluidity of mitochondrial membranes in muscle tissue of cold acclimated grass carp increased as a result of the changes of composition of fatty acids and the decreasing of the content of cholesterol. In the muscle tissues of cold-acclimated mud carp. mixed sperms inseminated mud carp and control mud carp, although the content of cholesterol decreased, increasing of fluidity of the mitochondrial membranes were limited because of the changes in composition of fatty acids were little. The difference of fluidity changes of the membranes between grass carp and mud carp are partly responsible for the difference of cold-endurance in these two fishes. 4. In this paper, the reasons for mixed sperms inseminating method improving the capacity of low temperature tolorance in mud carp were discussed. Author thought that mixed sperms inseminating method could improve the capacity of low temperature tolorance, but the improvement was not complete. Some suggestions of increasing the cold-resistance of mud carp were discussed.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12798
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
鱼类低温适应机制的研究.曹永长[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,1989.20-25
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