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题名: LAS、PCP-Na和K_2Cr_2O_7对梨形四膜虫Tetrahymena pyriformis毒性效应的研究
作者: 吴玉萍
答辩日期: 1989
导师: 沈韫芬
专业: 水生生物学
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
学位: 硕士
摘要: 本文在中生态系、种群、细胞以及亚细胞四个生物学组建水平上研究了十二烷基苯磺酸钠LAS、五氯酚钠PCP-Na和K_2Cr_2O_7对原生动物(主要是梨形四膜虫)的毒性效应。1.在常德市城市污水净化--资源化生态工程系统的中型模拟试验中,本文利用微型生物群落的结构参数(种类组成、异养性指数和多养性指数等)和功能参数(Seg、G、T_(90%))并结合理化因子的研究,水体中污染物如阴离子表面活性剂在稳定塘系统内逐级净化,最终在IV号池,其浓度达到生活饮用水水质标准,得出中型模拟池的水质从劣到优的顺序是沉淀池,II好池、III号池、IV号池。2.在种群级急性和慢性毒性试验的基础上,本文得出:PCP-Na对梨形四膜虫SI的12hr-LC_(50)为0.117ppm,K_2Cr_2O_7对梨形四膜虫SI的12hr-LC50为14.098ppm,24hr-IC_(50)为3.23ppm。3.在细胞级的毒性试验中,本文利用扫描分光光度计对梨形四膜虫SI受LAS、PCP-Na和K_2Cr_2O_7作用后,其大、小核DNA的含量进行了测试,同时检测了LAS和K_2Cr_2O_7对梨形四膜虫BJ_4“微核率”的影响。结果表明:0.14ppmLAS(小于MATC)仍然对细胞的遗传物质有损伤效应0.014ppmLAS未引起可检测的遗传学变化0.05ppm K_2Cr_2O_7(为MATC)和0.0009ppm PCP-Na(小于MATC)能四膜虫仍具潜在的遗传危害性。4.在亚细胞级的毒性试验中,本文利用电镜技术,发现虫体经药物处理后,亚显微结构显示出病变。作者发现LAS作用于四膜虫的敏感胞器是线粒体,而K_2Cr_2O_7主要损伤胞核。采用分光光度法对细胞内酶活性进行了测定,结果显示:11.31ppm LAS甚至0.14ppm LAS均能改变SDH及IDH的活性(P < 0.05)。本文对LAS对梨形四膜虫的致毒机制作了讨论。
英文摘要: The toxic effects of LAS (Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulfonate), PCP-Na (Soldium Pentachlorophenate) and Potassium bichromatum on protozoan: Mainly Tetrahymena pyriformls, were studied at four biological organization levels: subcell. cell, population and mesocosm. (1) The effluents purlfying efficiencies were firstly eveluated by using microbial communities. In the middle-sized simulated tests of ecological engineering system for effluents purification-resourcement in Changde, Hunan province. Anionic surfactants in effluents were purified gradualiy through a series of oxidation ponds. Finally, the concentration of surfactant was decreased to the standard of driakingwater quality at the fourth pond. According to the structural and functional parameters of microbial communities, such as the number of protozoan species the sepecies composition, heterotrophic index, diversity index and the protozoan colonization (Seg, G, T_(90%)), the toxic stress decreased in sequence as precipitation tank, the second pond, the third pond and the fourth pond. (2) Acute and chroaic toxicity tests at the population level of tetrahymena pyriformis SI showed that 12hr-LC_(50) of PCP-Na was 0.117ppm, 12hr-LC_(50) of K_2Cr_2O_7 was 14.098ppm and 24hr-IC_(50) of K_2Cr_2O_7 was 3.23ppm. (3) Toxicity tests at the cellular level DNA amounts in macro-and micronuclel of Tetrahymena pyriformis SI treated with LAS, PCP-Na and K_2Cr_2O_7 were measured by Feulgen microspectrophotmetry. Micronuciel (MN) of Tetrahymena pyrlformis BJ_4 were also identified n the meantime. It was found that 0.14ppm (bleow MATC) conid damage genetical materials of the cells. The safe concentration of LAS should be 0.014ppm. 0.05ppm K_2Cr_2O_7 potassium blchromatum (equal to MATC) and 0.0009ppm PCP-Na (below MATC) had potential harmal effects at the genetical level. (4) Toxicity tests at the subcelluiar level TEM and SEM techniques were applied to observe the ultrastructural changes of treated cells. The most sensitive organelle of damage of LAS was the mitchondrion. And it would apper that the site of damage of K_2Cr_2O_7 was nucleus. Spetrophotometric techaluqes were used to measure enzymes activities of the cells. And the results showed that 11.31ppm LAS, as well as 0.14ppm LAS had altered SDH and IDH activities. The toxic mechanisms of LAS to Tetrahymena pyriformis were also discussed in this paper.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12784
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
LAS、PCP-Na和K_2Cr_2O_7对梨形四膜虫Tetrahymena pyriformis毒性效应的研究.吴玉萍[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,1989.20-25
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