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低pH对草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus Cuv. et Val.)呼吸代谢和血液酸碱平衡的影响
余日清
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor王德铭 ; 贺锡勤
1989
Degree Grantor中国科学院水生生物研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院水生生物研究所
Degree Discipline水生生物学
Abstract本实验用先进的传感技术和动脉导管活体取血技术,全面研究了低pH(6.0-3.6)对草鱼呼吸代谢和血液酸碱平衡状况影响。低pH对草鱼幼鱼呼吸影响的一般模式为呼吸率加快,呼吸深度加大,咳嗽反应增加,耗氧率先升高,继而下降,在pH5.6的酸化水中,呼吸率、呼吸深度及耗氧率都未受影响。在pH4.6中,呼吸率和咳嗽率明显增高,呼吸深度和耗氧率基本没有发生变化。在pH3.6中,呼吸率、咳嗽率及呼吸深度引起非常显著的升高,耗氧率引起极为显著的下降,同时,观察到鱼鳃大量分泌粘液的现象。pH6.0的酸化水引起草鱼成鱼血液pH和[HCO_3~-]轻微的波动,PaO_2和PaCO_2则不受影响。在pH5.0时,血液pH和[HCO_3~-]显著下降,关在一较低的水平上趋于平衡,而PaO_2和PaCO_2基本未受影响。在pH4.0时,血液出现严重的酸碱紊乱,[HCO_3~-]丧失严重,pH下降非常显著,PaO_2显著下降。本研究表明,鱼类为维持机体正常气体代谢,具有很强的自我调节能力。亚致死水平低pH(5.6)对草鱼呼吸功能的影响,随时间延长,可以得到恢复。致死水平低pH(3.6-4.6)则严重干扰了草鱼的气体代谢并降低了血液PO_2,最终导致机体组织缺氧。低氧症是草鱼酸致死的重要机制之一。低pH引起草鱼出现酸血症。这种现象加重了对鱼体的生理危害。血液[HCO_3~-]的丧失对草鱼酸血症的形成起了很大的作用。引起草鱼酸血症的主要机制可能是H~+离子向鳃的大量渗入现象。与鲑鳟鱼类相比,草鱼是一种酸敏感性的鱼类。从pH6.0酸化对草鱼血液酸碱状况的影响来看,为保证草鱼在天然水体中正常生活,免受低pH酸水的危害,水质pH至少应维持在60以上。试验得出草鱼对低pH影响的灵敏程度依次为:咳嗽反应>呼吸率>耗氧率>呼吸深度。从实用性考虑,咳嗽率和呼吸率反应由于其测试方法简单且灵敏度高,可作为生物监测和早期警告系统的手段。
Other AbstractThis study investigated the effects of low pH (6.0-3.6) on the respiratory metabolism and blood acid-base balance in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, using techniques of modern transduction and in vivo blood sampling with arterial cannulae. The general model of effects of low pH on respiration by juvenile grass carp was an increase in ventilation rate, depth of breathing and cough responses. Oxygen consumption rose initially and decreased subsequently. Ventilation rate, depth of breathing and Oxygen consumption were not affected at pH 5.6. At pH 4.6, ventilation rate and cough rate increased apparently, but depth of breathing and Oxygen consumption rate were uneffected. Exposure to pH 3.6 resulted in highly significant rises in ventilation rate, cough rate and depth of breathing, and decrease in Oxygen consumption. Also observed was the secretion of large quantities of mucus on the gills. At pH 6.0, adult grass carp showed a slight fluctuation in blood pH and (HCO_3~-) but there was no response in blood PO_2 and PCO_2. At pH 5.0, blood pH and (HCO_3~-) decreased significantly, but seemed to attain a new balance at a lower level, PaO_2 and PaCO_2 remained uneffected. At pH 4.0, the acid-base status of the blood was severely affected, there being a drastic loss in blood (HCO_3~-) and a significant decrease in blood pH. Blood PCO_2 increased and blood PO_2 decreased significantly. This study showed that fish possess very powerful self-regulation ability in order to maintain normal gas metablism. Respiratory functions of grass carp could recover after prolonged exposure to the sublethal level low pH (5.6). At lethal levels (pH 3.6-4.6), gas metabolism of grass carp was severely disturbed and blood PO_2 decreased. In the end. Oxygen deficiency in tissues of organisms occurred. Anoxia is one of the important mechanisms which resulted in death of grass carp caused by acid water. Exposure to low pH resulted in acidaemia in grass carp. This phenomenon aggravated physiological damages in the fish. Loss of blood (HCO_3) played an important role in the occurrence of acidaemia of grass carp. The major mechanism which causes acidaemiain grass carp may be a H~+ influxe to the gill. Grass carp is an acid-sensitive fish compared with Salmonids. The response of blood acid-base status in grass carp to acidification to pH 6.0 suggested that water pH must be keep to 6.0 or higher to ensure the health of the grass carp and avoid damages caused by acid water. The sensitivies to low pH of the responses of the grass carp were in the order: cough response > ventilation rate > Oxygen consumption rate > depth of breathing. From the practical point of view, cough rate and ventilation rate can be used as indicators in biological monitoring and early warning system because they are easy to measure and highly sensitive.
Pages86
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12780
Collection学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
余日清. 低pH对草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus Cuv. et Val.)呼吸代谢和血液酸碱平衡的影响[D]. 中国科学院水生生物研究所. 中国科学院水生生物研究所,1989.
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