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水体中生物膜对污染物环境化学行为的影响
Alternative TitleThe effect of biofilm on the environmental chemical behavior of pollutants in water bodies
郑利
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor徐小清
2002
Degree Grantor中国科学院水生生物研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院水生生物研究所
Degree Discipline环境科学
Keyword生物膜 沉积物 酸挥发性硫化物 重金属 分维数
Abstract生物膜在天然水体中的固-液界面是广泛存在的,不论是还原态的沉积物-水界面,还是氧化态的水环境中基质表面,生物膜的存在及其分布对污染物的环境化学行为具有重要影响.该文针对武汉东湖沉积物,定点和定量观测了碳、硫、铁、锰及微量有毒重金属分布规律,对还原型界面生物膜的微观结构及其对以上监测指标的分布影响进行了研究;另一方面,研究了水环境中氧化型生物膜对无机金属离子和有机污染物甲基叔丁基醚(MTBE)的吸附规律;并将分形理论应用于生物膜研究中来,进一步深入理解生物膜对污染物的吸附行为.
Other AbstractBiofilm are ubiquitous. They occur in nature on almost any surface that is in contact with water. Both anoxic sediment-water interface and oxide substrate interface in aquatic environment are covered by biofilm, which have an important effect on the environmental chemical behavior of pollutants. This thesis deals with the distribution of C, S, Fe, Mn and other trace metal items in the sediment of Donghu Lake, the microstructure of biofilm and its effect on the distribution of these items in sediment. On the other hand, metal ions and MTBE adsorption on oxide biofilm interface in aquatic environment were studied. In the end, fractal theory is applied to the adsorption research of biofilm for more comprehension. The main results are as following: l.The SEM analysis of the sediments in Donghu Lake indicate that the sediment particle surface is covered by biofilm. Biofilms are inhomogeneous systems including organic part(microorganism and humus) and inorganic part(clay). Biofilm on the sediment-water surface controls redox process so that it has great effect on the distribution of C, S, Fe, Mn and trace metals. 2.The contrast research results of three stations in Donghu Lake show that, seasonal and vertical distribution of AVS are uneven. Organic content is the mainly influence factor, which often limits the depth interval over which SO42" reduction takes place. When AVS/0.004, high AVS content can be found in the top 5cm sediment of Donghu Lake, however, when AVS/0.004, AVS content in the top sediment(5cm) is lower than that in the bottom sediment(30cm). 3.AVS often control the distribution of active Fe, Mn and trace metals. In the sediments of I and II stations, AVS content is higher than that of III station. Significant correlation between AVS and vertical distribution of Cr, Ni, Ag, Cd, Fe, Mn is found. The higher content of AVS in the sediments is, the higher AVS-M/AVS ratio is. AVS content in the sediments of III station is lower, accordingly, the controlling effect on heavy metal is smaller. 4.The biofilm on the artificial substrate surface in aquatic environment consist of organism(protozoa,algea) and mineral particles (Fe, Mn oxides), which is inhomogeneous complex systems. The results of Cu、Pb、Cd and MTBE adsorption on artificial substrate biofilm in Donghu shows that, the different components organic matter and Fe, Mn oxides in biofilm have important influence on metal ions adsorpion. Γ_(max) of three metal is ordered by Cu>Pb>Cd. However, during MTBE adsorption process on biofilm, only organic matter is key influence factor, while Fe, Mn oxides have little influence. 5.With the help of fractal adsorption theory, the scrambling of biofilm surface can be measured by molecule with different bulk, and be expressed by fractal dimension . Cu~(2+), Pb~(2+) and Cd~(2+) adsorption on Algal surface accord to mono molecule layer mechanism. The calculated D value of Cu2+, Pb~(2+) and Cd~(2+) is 0.776±0.022, 0.118±0.009 and 0.535±0.012 6.The scrambling of the biofilm on the artificial substrate surface can be measured by Cu~(2+)、Cd~(2+)和Pb~(2+). The calculated D value of Cu~(2+), Pb~(2+) and Cd~(2+) is 1.260, 1.655 and 2.546 During the process of selective extractions, Γ_(max) of Cu~(2+)和Cd~(2+) decrease while D value increase. Negative correlation between Γ_(max) and D is obviously. 7. The scrambling of the biofilm on suspend matter in Yangtse River at Yichang site can be estimated by applying fractal adsoiption theory. It was find that the D value of Cu2x on suspend matter surface is higher during high-level period than during low-level period. It is possible that surface fractal dimension of suspend matter can be measured by metal ions with different hydration ions radius. The D value variety of Cu2+ on suspend matter surface along with time is consistent with that of Pb2+.
Pages164
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12654
Collection学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
郑利. 水体中生物膜对污染物环境化学行为的影响[D]. 中国科学院水生生物研究所. 中国科学院水生生物研究所,2002.
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