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Alternative TitleEstablishment of feeding regimes for gibel carp
Degree Grantor中国科学院水生生物研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院水生生物研究所
Degree Discipline水生生物学
Keyword最佳投喂频率 日摄食节律 最适摄食率 异育银鲫
Other AbstractThe feeding regimes, including optimum feeding frequency, diel feeding rhythm, and optimum feeding rate, were established for gibel carp(Gzras.sm.s auratus gibelio).The optimum feeding frequency for gibel carp was determined through 8-week growth trial at five frequencies(2,3,4,12 and 24 meals/d). Diel feeding rhythm of gibel carp was investigated by 24-hour trials at two body sizes (mean body weight:20.5g and 76.3g) .The optimum feeding rate for gibel carp was estimated by the bioenergetics modelling and the validation trial was carried out based on the the feeding regimes of gibel carp. The main results were shown as following: With the increase of feeding frequency, the specific growth rate in wet weight for juvenile gibel carp increased significantly, and the apparent digestibility of protein and energy increased significantly while the apparent digestibility of dry matter showed no obvious variation. Feeding frequency had no effect on the size variation and survival rate for juvenile gibel carp. The optimum feeding frequency was 24 meals per day for juvenile gibel carp. At the optimum feeding frequency, the relationship between maximum food consumption (Cmax,g/d), body weight (W,g) and temperature (T,°C) can be expressed as lnCmax= -6.125+ 1.4711nT +0.1961nT*lnW for gibel carp of 3.5-430.0 g fed to satiation at different water temperatures:20.2,25.5,30.6 and 35.3 °C. Body weight (W,g) and temperature (T,°C) had significant interaction on the maximum food consumption (Cmax,g/d) of gibel carp. The relationship between the specific growth rate in wet weight (SGRw,%/d) and body weight(W,g) was: ln(SGRw+0.25) =3.306-0.7081nW, temperature(T,''C)had no significant effect on the specific growth rate in wet weight (SGRw,%/d) of gibel carp. The relationship between the specific growth rate in energy (SGRe,%/d), temperature(T,"C) and body weight(W,g) was: In(SGR.+0.25)= -6.320+0.667T-0.011T2-0.025T*lnW. Temperature(T,TC) and body weight(W,g) had significant interaction on the specific growth rate in energy(SGR*,%/d).The optimum temperature for energy growth tended to decrease with increasing body weight in gibel carp, being 29.5"U for 3.0g fish, and 23.8°C for 430.0g fish. The sub-model of SGRe was selected for predicting the growth of gibel carp for its higher R and more sensitive to temperature than that of SGRW The relationship between standard metabolism (Rs,mgO2/h/fish),wet weight (W,g) and temperature(T,<1C)was: lnRs=-0.830+0.021T-H).6701nW in short terra respiration trials. The relationship between feeding metabolism rate (Rf, mgCVg/d) and feeding rate (C, J/g/d) was Rp0.264C+36.740 determined in short term respiration trials. The relationship between feeding metabolism (Rfinax,kJ/d),body weight (W,g) and temperature(T,'C) for gibel carp at maximum feeding rate was Rw^6.237+0.6971nW+l .9401nT. The energy loss through feces (FJKJ/d) was 0.077C(C: food consumption, KJ/d) and the energy bss through excretion(U,KJ/d) was 0.052C at maximum feeding rate. In that the ratios of F and U to C were low in fish energy budget equation(Cui et aL,1997),the energy loss through feces at optimum feeding rate (Fopt, KJ/d)could be estimated by 0.077Copt(C<^t: the optimum feeding rate) and the energy loss through excretion at optimum feeding rate (Uopt,KJ/d) could be estimated by 0.052Copt- The relationship between total energy content (E, KJ/fish) for immature gibel carp and body weight (W,g) was lnE=l .476+1.1271nW. 5. Based on the energy budget equation, the optimum feeding rate(Copt,KJ/d) for gibel carp was CV^wHv+Uopt+RoptCGna*, maximum growth energy, KJ/d; Fc,*, fecal energy at the optimum feeding rate, KJ/d; Uopt, excretion energy at the optimum feeding rate, KJ/d; R^, metabolism energy at the optimum feeding rate ), and Fopt=0.077COpt,Uopt=0.052Copt and ROpt=k*(Rfiliax+Rs) and k is adjusted coefficient. Judged from the studies of other omnivorous fish species(Cui et al., unpublished), the total metabolism at the maximum feeding level (RwfRs, KJ/d)determined in the short term respiration trials for gibel carp was equal to half of the total metabolism calculated by the difference through long term growth trial. Based on the results of the studies (Xie,1997; Zhu et al.,2001), k was equal to 1. Gibel carp showed inconsistent diel feeding rhythms with different fish body sizes. The small fish( mean weight 20.5g) had significantly lower feeding rate throughout the dark time (20:00-06:00) than daytime(06:00-20:00), but the large fish (mean weight 76.3 g) only showed lower feeding rate during the twilight(03:00-05:00) and almost ceased feeding during this period. The duration with RFI<20%(RFI: relative feeding intake) of large fish was more than that of small fish. The validation trial showed that the optimum feeding rate estimated by the bioenergetics models seemed a little higher than the actual optimum feeding rate. It might be due to the errors in the estimation offish growth.
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
周志刚. 利用生物能量学模型建立异育银鲫投喂体系的研究[D]. 中国科学院水生生物研究所. 中国科学院水生生物研究所,2002.
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