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题名: 利用生物能量学模型建立异育银鲫投喂体系的研究
作者: 周志刚
答辩日期: 2002
专业: 水生生物学
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 最佳投喂频率 ; 日摄食节律 ; 最适摄食率 ; 异育银鲫
其他题名: Establishment of feeding regimes for gibel carp
摘要: 该文的目的是建立起异育银鲫(Carassiusauratusgibelio)的投喂体系,包括异育银鲫的最佳投喂频率、日摄食节律及最适摄食率.异育银鲫的最佳投喂频率是通过设计5组不同的频率2、3、4、12及24次/天(m/d),经8周生长实验,然后比较鱼体生长和饲料转化效率获得的;异育银鲫的日摄食节律是通过对两组不同体重异育银鲫(平均体重20.5g和76.3g)24h内摄食率(%/h)的测定而获得的;异育银鲫的最适摄食率是通过鱼类生物能量学模型的建立而获得的;最后通过生长实验对建立起来的异育银鲫投喂体系进行了验证.
英文摘要: The feeding regimes, including optimum feeding frequency, diel feeding rhythm, and optimum feeding rate, were established for gibel carp(Gzras.sm.s auratus gibelio).The optimum feeding frequency for gibel carp was determined through 8-week growth trial at five frequencies(2,3,4,12 and 24 meals/d). Diel feeding rhythm of gibel carp was investigated by 24-hour trials at two body sizes (mean body weight:20.5g and 76.3g) .The optimum feeding rate for gibel carp was estimated by the bioenergetics modelling and the validation trial was carried out based on the the feeding regimes of gibel carp. The main results were shown as following: With the increase of feeding frequency, the specific growth rate in wet weight for juvenile gibel carp increased significantly, and the apparent digestibility of protein and energy increased significantly while the apparent digestibility of dry matter showed no obvious variation. Feeding frequency had no effect on the size variation and survival rate for juvenile gibel carp. The optimum feeding frequency was 24 meals per day for juvenile gibel carp. At the optimum feeding frequency, the relationship between maximum food consumption (Cmax,g/d), body weight (W,g) and temperature (T,°C) can be expressed as lnCmax= -6.125+ 1.4711nT +0.1961nT*lnW for gibel carp of 3.5-430.0 g fed to satiation at different water temperatures:20.2,25.5,30.6 and 35.3 °C. Body weight (W,g) and temperature (T,°C) had significant interaction on the maximum food consumption (Cmax,g/d) of gibel carp. The relationship between the specific growth rate in wet weight (SGRw,%/d) and body weight(W,g) was: ln(SGRw+0.25) =3.306-0.7081nW, temperature(T,''C)had no significant effect on the specific growth rate in wet weight (SGRw,%/d) of gibel carp. The relationship between the specific growth rate in energy (SGRe,%/d), temperature(T,"C) and body weight(W,g) was: In(SGR.+0.25)= -6.320+0.667T-0.011T2-0.025T*lnW. Temperature(T,TC) and body weight(W,g) had significant interaction on the specific growth rate in energy(SGR*,%/d).The optimum temperature for energy growth tended to decrease with increasing body weight in gibel carp, being 29.5"U for 3.0g fish, and 23.8°C for 430.0g fish. The sub-model of SGRe was selected for predicting the growth of gibel carp for its higher R and more sensitive to temperature than that of SGRW The relationship between standard metabolism (Rs,mgO2/h/fish),wet weight (W,g) and temperature(T,<1C)was: lnRs=-0.830+0.021T-H).6701nW in short terra respiration trials. The relationship between feeding metabolism rate (Rf, mgCVg/d) and feeding rate (C, J/g/d) was Rp0.264C+36.740 determined in short term respiration trials. The relationship between feeding metabolism (Rfinax,kJ/d),body weight (W,g) and temperature(T,'C) for gibel carp at maximum feeding rate was Rw^6.237+0.6971nW+l .9401nT. The energy loss through feces (FJKJ/d) was 0.077C(C: food consumption, KJ/d) and the energy bss through excretion(U,KJ/d) was 0.052C at maximum feeding rate. In that the ratios of F and U to C were low in fish energy budget equation(Cui et aL,1997),the energy loss through feces at optimum feeding rate (Fopt, KJ/d)could be estimated by 0.077Copt(C<^t: the optimum feeding rate) and the energy loss through excretion at optimum feeding rate (Uopt,KJ/d) could be estimated by 0.052Copt- The relationship between total energy content (E, KJ/fish) for immature gibel carp and body weight (W,g) was lnE=l .476+1.1271nW. 5. Based on the energy budget equation, the optimum feeding rate(Copt,KJ/d) for gibel carp was CV^wHv+Uopt+RoptCGna*, maximum growth energy, KJ/d; Fc,*, fecal energy at the optimum feeding rate, KJ/d; Uopt, excretion energy at the optimum feeding rate, KJ/d; R^, metabolism energy at the optimum feeding rate ), and Fopt=0.077COpt,Uopt=0.052Copt and ROpt=k*(Rfiliax+Rs) and k is adjusted coefficient. Judged from the studies of other omnivorous fish species(Cui et al., unpublished), the total metabolism at the maximum feeding level (RwfRs, KJ/d)determined in the short term respiration trials for gibel carp was equal to half of the total metabolism calculated by the difference through long term growth trial. Based on the results of the studies (Xie,1997; Zhu et al.,2001), k was equal to 1. Gibel carp showed inconsistent diel feeding rhythms with different fish body sizes. The small fish( mean weight 20.5g) had significantly lower feeding rate throughout the dark time (20:00-06:00) than daytime(06:00-20:00), but the large fish (mean weight 76.3 g) only showed lower feeding rate during the twilight(03:00-05:00) and almost ceased feeding during this period. The duration with RFI<20%(RFI: relative feeding intake) of large fish was more than that of small fish. The validation trial showed that the optimum feeding rate estimated by the bioenergetics models seemed a little higher than the actual optimum feeding rate. It might be due to the errors in the estimation offish growth.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12648
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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利用生物能量学模型建立异育银鲫投喂体系的研究.周志刚[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2002.20-25
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