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长江中游浅水湖泊大型底栖动物的生态学研究
Alternative TitleSTUDIES ON ECOLOGY OF MACROZOOBENTHOS IN SHALLOW LAKES ALONG THE MIDDLE REACHES OF THE CHANGJIANG RIVER
龚志军
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor谢平
2002
Degree Grantor中国科学院水生生物研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院水生生物研究所
Degree Discipline水生生物学
Keyword大型底栖动物 浅水湖泊 富营养化 生物多样性 次级生产力
Abstract该文对长江中游处于逆向演替过程中三个浅水湖泊大型底栖动物的生态学进行了研究,内容包括底栖动物群落结构对水体富营养化的响应、东湖底栖动物的空间分布格局、东湖底栖动物的长期变化、草型湖泊和藻型湖泊底栖动物的比较研究,以及东湖底栖动物的生产力等方面,主要研究结果如下:1.霍甫水丝蚓和中国长足摇蚊在东湖的空间分布格局极具特色.2.对长江中游两个浅水湖泊-草型湖泊扁担塘和藻型湖泊后湖底栖动物群落结构进行了比较研究.3.东湖底栖动物群落结构在60年代-90年代期间发生了巨大的变化,最为明显的一个现象是物种多样性的快速丧失,从60年代的133种降低到90年代的67种,其中以毛翅目和软体动物种类的消失更甚.4.较系统地研究了东湖底栖动物九种优势种的生活史、P/B系数和生产量.
Other AbstractEcology of macrozoobenthos was studied in three shallow lakes along middle reaches of the Changjiang River. Major contents of this paper included: 1 )respondances of macrozoobenthos to lake eutrophication, 2) spatial distribution pattern and long-term changes of macrozoobenthos in Lake Donghu, 3 ) comparative studies on macrozoobenthos community between Lakes Biandantang and Houhu, and 4) production of macrozoobenthos in Lake Donghu. The main results are given as follows: 1. In Lake Donghu, the oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmesteri and the insect Tanypus chinensis showed unique patterns of spatial distribution: both species were mainly distributed in the most eutropic Shuiguohu area, and the density of L. hoffmesteri decreased when distance from sewage outlet increased, while that of T. chinensis showed a reverse trend, but it decreased gradually as the density reached the highest value. A significant negative correlation was found between species richness of macrozoobenthos and the trophic level of lake water. A positive relationship was found between density of L. hoffmesteri and the trophic level of lake water, indicating its ability to tolerate low dissolved oxygen due to eutrophycation. No significant correlation was found between the density of other taxa and the trophic level. The relationship between T. chinensis and the trophic level of the lake water was also discussed. The present results show that T. chinensis is also an indicator of hypertrophic water, although it is less endurable to eutrophication than L. hoffmeisteri. 2. Comparative ecological studies on macrozoobenthos were carried out in two shallow lakes-the macrophytic Lake Biandantang and the macrophyte-lacking Lake Houhu. A total of 67 and 31 taxa of macrozoobenthos were recorded in Lakes Biandantang and Houhu, respectively. The annual mean density and biomass of macrozoobenthos were higher in Lake Biandantang than in Lake Houhu. K-dominance curves and Shannon-Wiener, Simpson, and Margelef indices indicated that macrozoobenthos were more diverse in Lake Biandantang than in Lake Houhu. This suggests that, in shallow lakes, submerged macrophytes are essential for the maintenance of biodiversity of macrozoobenthos mainly because the macrophytes increase habitat of heterogeneity and food availability for macrozoobenthos, and also decrease predation by fish on the macrozoobenthos. 3. Drastic changes in the community structure of macrozoobenthos had occurred during the 1960s-1990s, among which the most significant phenomenon was the loss of species biodiversity. During the 1960s, a total of 133 taxa of macrozoobenthos were found in Lake Donghu, while there were only 67 taxa during 1990s. The reduction of species richness was the most remarkedble in Trichoptera and Mollusca. Species succession of macrozoobenthos was closely related to the changes in environmental conditions such as the isolation of the lake from the river, eutrophication, and disappearance of macrophytes. Perhaps, the latter two changes were more important. 4. Secondary production of major groups of macrozoobenthos in Lake Donghu was estimated from field data. The number of generaion, P/B coefficients and production of 9 dominant species were as follows: B. aeruginosa, univoltine, 91.56g WW/m2.yr, 0.64; S. lacustre, univoltine, 43.02g WW/m2.yr, 3.55; B. sowerbyi, univoltine, 11.39g WW/m2.yr, 4.15; L. hoffmesteri, trivoltine, 7.09 g WW/m2.yr, 11.9; P. choreus, bivoltine, 5.03g WW/m2.yr,10.33; Ch. plumosus, bivoltine, 3.37g WW/m2.yr, 9.10; T. chinensis, univoltine, 3.76g WW/m2.yr, 4.49; T.akamusi, univoltine, 44.60g WW/m2.yr, 4.60; Clinotanypus sugiyamai, univoltine, 0.48g WW/m2.yr, 7.59. The production of total macrozoobenthos and the potential fishery production from macrozoobenthos were 214.5 g WW/m2.yr and 107.55 ton/yr, respectively.
Pages161
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12638
Collection学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
龚志军. 长江中游浅水湖泊大型底栖动物的生态学研究[D]. 中国科学院水生生物研究所. 中国科学院水生生物研究所,2002.
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