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题名: 长江中华鲟繁殖群体数量和东湖放养鱼类资源量的水声学评估
作者: 谭细畅
答辩日期: 2002
导师: 常剑波
专业: 水生生物学
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 水声学 ; 中华鲟 ; 放养鱼类 ; 葛洲坝水利枢纽工程 ; 东湖
其他题名: HYDROACOUSTIC SURVEYS ON SPAWNING STOCK OFACIPENSQR SINENSIS IN THE YANGTZE RIVER ANDPLANKTIVOROUS CARPS IN THE EAST LAKE
摘要: 本文的主要研究内容是采用水声学方法对珍稀、濒危鱼类的种群数量以及对封闭水体的鱼类资源量进行评估。研究对象包括两个方面,即宜昌葛洲坝水利枢纽工程坝下江段中华鳃繁殖群体的数量和武汉东湖放养鱼类的资源量。在中华姆(Acipensor sinensis)繁殖群体数量的研究中,采用的是自行研制的超声波探测系统;在武汉东湖鱼类资源量的研究中,采用的是PS-2OR便携式回声探测仪。主要结果如下:1.自行开发研制的超声波探测系统由FUSO-405回声探测仪、KGP-97型GPS导航仪、数据采集仪以及微型计算机组成,换能器的工作频率为120 KHz,探测张角为170,增益执行手动方式或自动方式,采用计算机记录采集信号;Ps-2OR便携式回声探测仪为日本Kaij。公司制造,换能器的工作频率为200KHz,探测张角为6°,以热敏纸一记录采集信号。2.通过回波信号值的大小、回波图像轨迹长度等实验研究,建立中华鳄回波信号的判别模式,并据此对葛洲坝水利枢纽工程坝下江段5.49km2范围内中华鳃繁殖群体的数量进行探测。结果表明:1998年产卵前中华鳃繁殖群体数量估算约为350尾,产卵后约为265尾;1999年第一次产卵前中华鳃繁殖群体数量估算约为395尾,第二次产卵前约为156尾;2000年第二次产卵前中华鳃繁殖群体数量估算约为177尾,第二次产卵后约为103尾:2001年第一次产卵前数量估算约为212尾,第二次产卵前约为34尾,第二次产卵后未探测到中华鳃。3.中华鳃繁殖群体垂直分布的栖息水层以及分布地点的水深范围在不同年度之间无明显变化。1998-2001年坝下至镇江阁江段的探测路线上平均水深在巧m至25.3m之间,中华鳃分布水深的范围是8.2-24m,90%的个体集中于9-21m的水深位置。中华鳃主要栖息于靠近水底的位置。不同年度中华鳃在坝下至镇江阁江段的水平分布无明显的区域变化,中华鳃繁殖群体主要分布在内河口至李家河的主航道区,另外三江也偶然发现有中华鳃分布,1998、1999年分别在水深12m的位置探测到1尾。4.使用PS-20R便携式回声探测仪对东湖的鱼类资源量进行周年探测,结果显示:2000年1月份,东湖中鱼类数量为54万尾,2月份为67万尾,4月份为42万尾,5-8月份东湖鱼类数量从50万尾增加到190万尾,9-12月东湖鱼类数量从178万尾减少到128万尾。东湖鱼类资源量的数量变动受东湖渔场鱼种放养和商品鱼捕捞等渔业活动的影响。5.东湖不同水层的鱼类密度存在显著性差异,鱼类主要分布在1.5m以下的水层。此外,东湖中不同区域的鱼类密度分布亦有显著性差异,但鱼类水平分布的差异与水深、离岸距离等因素没有明显的相关关系,而主要由群聚行为引起,由不同月份群聚程度不一致推测水温的变化可影响群聚的程度。污水排放对鱼类群聚分布有一定的影响。
英文摘要: 1. During 1998 and 2001, using a FUSO 405 echo-sounder, we investigated the numbers of spawning stocks of the Chinese sturgeon, AcipensQr sinensis, below the Gezhouba Dam of the Yangtze River. The population sizes of the planktivorous, silver and bighead carps, in the East Lake were also estimated monthly in 2000 by using a PS-20R portable echo-sounder.Based on echo strength and signals size, the Chinese sturgeon was discriminated from other fish species. The spawning ground between the Gezhouba Dam and the Zhenjiang Pavilion has a surface area of about 5.49 km2, and the spawning stocks prior to and after the spawning activity were about 380 and 265 individuals in 1998, respectively, and about 395 and 156 individuals in 1999, respectively. The spawning stocks prior to and after the second spawning activity in 2000 were about 177 and 103 individuals, respectively in 2000, and those prior to and after the first spawning activity in 2001 were about 212 and 34 individuals, respectively. No sturgeon was found after the second spawning activity in 2001.No significant difference in annual distributions of Chinese sturgeon was observed in the spawning ground among 1998 - 2001. The sturgeon was detected in depths between 8.2 and 24 m, with 90 % between 9 and 21 m. In spite of a wide vertical distribution, the sturgeons prefered to inhibit near the bottom.The number of stocked fish in the East Lake fluctuated seasonally probably mainly due to fishery activities. The surveys by using a PS - 20R echo-sounder shows that in 2000, the population size was about 0.54 millions in January, but dropped down from 0.67 millions in February to 0.42 millions in April, moved up from 0.5 to 1.9 millions from May to August, and declined again from 1.78 to 1.28 millions from September to December.The stocked fish were mainly distributed below 1.5 m vertically. Horizontally, heterogeneous distribution of stocked fish in the East Lake might be caused mainly by aggregation activity, water temperature, and sewage discharge. However, no significant correlation was found between the aggregation activity and water depth, or distances from the sampling sites to the shores.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12636
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
长江中华鲟繁殖群体数量和东湖放养鱼类资源量的水声学评估.谭细畅[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2002.20-25
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