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题名: 多种纤毛虫分子系统学研究
作者: 朱飞云
答辩日期: 2002
导师: 余育和
专业: 水生生物学
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 分子进化 ; SSU rRNA基因 ; 协同进化 ; 分类 ; 车轮虫 ; 小车轮虫 ; 半眉虫 ; 喇叭虫 ; 棘尾虫 ; 吸管虫
其他题名: Molecular Phylogeny of Several Ciliates
摘要: 纤毛虫是一个单系类群,迄今为止有文献记载的纤毛虫种类已达上万种。纤毛虫分类系统经过多次修改,然而其下属各阶元的系统进化关系仍存在争论。本文针对不同生活方式的纤毛虫,建立了不同的实验材料的获取和处理方式,并进行了有关核糖体小亚基RNA(ssurRNA)基因的序列分析和分子进化研究。测定了分布于纤毛虫系统中的六属九种纤毛虫的SSUrRNA基因的序列,其中七种尚未有任何分子序列和进化的研究报道。构建的分子进化树分析结果与其形态学、分类学进行比较,得到以下结论:1)车轮虫和小车轮虫两属因协同进化的影响与固着类纤毛虫在进化上有明显的分歧,缘毛目可能并非单系类群。2)巨口半眉虫基因同样受"寄主"协同进化的影响,其进化方向与直半眉虫存在少许分歧。4)半眉虫所属的侧口纲与前口纲完全没有聚类在一个进化枝上,佐证了分类学上的关于将侧口纲与前口纲拆分的变动。3)喇叭虫的色素颗粒与具共生藻这两种特征皆为衍征而非祖征。5)吸管虫的出芽生殖方式的进化与基因进化几乎一致,其进化过程可能为:外出芽生殖→内出芽生殖一外翻出芽生殖。6)下毛目尖毛虫属和棘尾虫属的物种在形态和分子序列上都没有明显的差别,两属的确立缺乏足够的依据。另外,我们发现在系统发育研究中,依据形态特征所做的研究与依据大分子所做的研究,大都是一致的,但也有不吻合的甚至完全冲突的结果。这秒冲突可能由某种异物同名引起。所以我们建议在新属报道时,将模式种的大分子序列资料与形态学特征一并提供。
英文摘要: Phylum Ciliophora is monophyly, and there are more than 10,000 species of ciliates in the literatures so far. Even after many times of modification on the classification of phylum Ciliophora by the observations on morphology, morphogenesis and ultrastructure, there are still arguments on many taxa. In this study, we developed novel methods to collect and treat samples which have different living habits and environments, and studied on phylogeny of ciliates by analyzing the sequences of Small Subunit Ribosome RNA (SSU rRNA) genes. We sequenced the SSU rRNA genes of 9 ciliates in 6 genus in this study. Among these species, there is no literature on the study of sequence and molecular evolution for 7 of them. After analyzing the phylogenetic tree and comparing the results with the characteristic in morphology and taxonomy, we have following conclusions: 1) Because of the coevolution in trichodinids, there are obvious difference between order Mobilida and order Sessilida in phylogenetic tree. The peritrichs is probably not monophyly. Due to the similar effect from coevolution with hosts on Hemiophrys macrostoma, there are deviations in the phylogeny for Hemiophrys macrostoma and Hemiophrys procera. It was found that class Litostomatea which Hemiophrys is belong to is not in the same clade with class Prostomatea in the phylogenetic tree,which confirms the change to remove the class Prostomatea from the subphylum including these two classes. The two characteristics of Stentor, having pigment granules and symbiotic Chlorella is apomorphic character, but not plesiomorphic character. There is well-fit ordination in evolution in gene level and the behavior level for budding reproduction of Suctoria. The possible evolution path for budding reproduction is: exogenous budding → endogenous budding → evaginogenous budding. 6) There is no obvious difference between Oxytricha and Stylonychia in both sequence and morphology. So there is no enough evidence for establishing these two genera. In addition, we found that the results from the morphological taxonomy and molecular phylogeny study fit each other, though there are some exceptions. The exceptions might be caused by the possibility that the same name is given to actually different species. So we suggest that morphology and molecular characters to a type specie should be submitted in the report for further taxonomic and phylogenetic research.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12634
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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多种纤毛虫分子系统学研究.朱飞云[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2002.20-25
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