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题名: 外源因子及内源因子对几种养殖鱼类生长影响的比较能量学研究
作者: 周萌
答辩日期: 2001
导师: 崔奕波
专业: 水生生物学
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
学位: 硕士
关键词: 摄食 ; 生长 ; 能量收支 ; 植物蛋白 ; 投喂频率 ; 杂交品系 ; 外源基因 ; 异育银鲫 ; 俄罗斯鲟 ; 丰鲤 ; 转基因黄河鲤
摘要: 本文从鱼类能量学的角度,研究了外源因子和内源因子对几种养殖鱼类的生长和能量收支。其中,外源因子包括饲料蛋白源和投喂频率,实验对象分别是异育银鲫和俄罗斯鲟:内源因子包括杂交品种和i外源基因,实验对象分别是丰鲤及其亲本和转基因黄河鲤及对照鲤。总共设计了如下五个试验:外源因子:1.三种蛋白源——鱼粉、豆粕、土豆蛋白对二异育银鲫生长及能量收支的影响机制:2.菜粕饲料中添加赖氨酸对异育银银鲫生长及能量收支的影响机制;3.投喂频率对俄罗斯鲟生长及能量收支的影响机制;内源因子:4.兴国红鲤、散鳞镜鲤及丰鲤的比较能量学研究:5.转全鱼生长激素墓因黄河鲤F_2代和对照鱼的比较能量学研究。并得出了如下结论:1.实验1中,投喂三种蛋白源饲料的异育银鲫的摄食率、生长率及食物转化效率均以鱼粉最高,豆粕其次,土豆蛋白最低;异育银鲫摄食能用于生长和排泄的比例则依次鱼粉>豆粕)土豆蛋白:用于代谢的比例则相反:用于排粪的比例是豆粕>土豆蛋白>鱼粉;特殊动力作用效率(SDA%)以豆粕>鱼粉>土豆蛋白;特殊动力作用强度(SDA)和摄食率(FR)以及蛋白质特定生长率(SGR_p)呈正相关,但与生长能占摄食能的比例(G%)关系不明显,但SDA%与SGRp、G或FR似乎均无显著关系:2.在实验2中,摄食三种饲料的异育银鲫的摄食率以添加了赖氨酸的菜粕显著高于鱼粉和菜粕;食物转化效率和特定生长率均以鱼粉显著高于另两组;摄食能用于生长的比例以鱼粉显著高于其它两组,而用于代谢、排泄的比例显著低于其它两组:菜粕中添加赖氨酸对生长、排泄、代谢占摄食能的比例没有显著影响,而降低了排粪占摄食能的比例:摄食三种饲料SDA和SDA%均以鱼粉显著低于菜粕和菜粕中添加赖氨酸,后两组之间没有显著差异;SDA与SGRp和G之间呈负相关;与摄食率FR的关系不明显;SDA%与FR无明显相关,与SGRp和G%呈负相关;3.俄罗斯鲟的特定生长率和食物转化效率随着投喂频率的增加差异不显著:摄食能用于能量收支各组分的比例在三种投喂频率下均没有显著差异;4.兴国红鲤的摄食率、生长率和食物转化效率显著低于散鳞镜鲤和丰鲤,后两者差异不显著;蛋白质、脂肪和能量的转化效率以兴国红鲤显著低于散鳞镜鲤和丰鲤,而后两者差异不显著;丰鲤和散鳞镜鲤摄食能用于生长的比例显著高于兴国红鲤,用于代谢和排泄的比例显著低于兴国红鲤。用于排粪的比例在三种鱼没有显著差异。三种鲤鱼的基础代谢水平(Rs)以兴国红鲤最高,丰鲤其次,散鳞镜鲤最低;特殊动力作用效率(SDA%)则相反,以散鳞镜鲤最高,丰鲤其次,兴国红鲤最低;5.转全鱼生长激素基因黄河鲤F_2代的摄食率、生长率、干重食物转化效率均显著高于对照鲤,湿重转化效率显著低于对照鲤;其脂肪和能量的转化效率显著高于对照鲤,蛋白质的转化效率则显著低于对照鲤;转基因鱼生长能占摄食能的比例显著高于对照鲤,代谢能占摄食能的比例显著低于对照鲤,排粪和排泄占摄食能的比例则没有显著差异;转基因鱼的标准代谢水平(Rs)显著高于对照鲤,特殊动力作用效率(SDA%)则显著低于对照鲤。
英文摘要: Five experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of exogenous and endogenous factors on the growth and energy budgets of several aquaculture fishes. The exogenous factors included dietary protein resources and feeding frequency, and the experimental fish were gibel carp and Russian sturgeon; The endogenous factors included fish strains and exogenous gene, and the experimental fish were hybrid carp and its parents, and transgenic Huanghe carp and the controls. Five experiments are: Exogenous factors: 1. The effects of three dietary protein sources on growth and energy budgets of gibel carp; 2. The effects of partially replacement of fish meal by rapeseed meal with or without lysine supplement in the diets on growth and energy budgets of gibe1 carp; 3. The effects of feeding frequency on growth and energy budgets of Russian sturgeon; Endogenous factors: 1. Comparative energetics of Xingguo red carp, mirror splittered carp and hybrid carp; 2. Comparative energetics of F2 transgenic Huanghe carp and controls. The results are shown as the following: 1. Feeding rate, specific growth rate, food conversion efficiency of gibel carp fed diets with various protein sources were significantly different. The fish fed fish meal protein showed highest feeding rate, growth and feed utilization, and then soybean meal while the fish fed potato protein showed lowest. The tendency of the proportion of food energy channeled into growth and excretion were: fish meal > soybean meal > potato protein, that to metabolism (R) was: potato protein > soybean meal > fish meal, and that to fecal production (F) were: soybean meal > potato protein > fish meal. Specific dynamic action efficiency (as percentage of food energy, SDA%) were also significantly different: soybean meal > fish meal > potato protein. The SDA magnitude (J/g/d) showed positive linear relationship to FR and SGR_p while not strong to G. However, SDA efficiency did not show significant relationship to SGR_p, G or FR. 2. Feeding rate of gibel carp fed diets with the replacement of rapeseed meal supplemented with lysine was significantly higher than the other two groups. Growth and feed conversion efficiency of gibel carp fed on fish meal diet were significantly higher than the other two groups. Lysine supplementation had no effect on growth. The proportion of food energy deposited on growth of the fish fed on fish meal diet was highest, and that lost in metabolism and excretion were lower. Lysine supplementation in the diets with the inclusion of rapeseed meal had no significantly effects on the proportion of food energy channeled into growth, excretion and metabolism, but significantly decreased the proportion lost in feces. SDA magnitude has a negative linear relationship to SGR_p, G%, but did not show significant relationship to FR. SDA% showed a negative relationship to SGRp, G%, and did not show significant relationship to FR. 3. Feeding frequency had no significant effects on growth, feed utilization or energy budget of Russian sturgeon. 4. Feeding rate, growth and feed conversion efficiency of Xingguo red carp were significantly lower than mirror splitterred carp and hybrid carp, but not significant for the latter two. The proportion of food energy deposited in growth in Xingguo red carp were significantly lower than mirror splittered carp and hybrid carp. The proportion lost in metabolism were significantly higher than that in mirror splittered carp and hybrid carp. There was no significant difference between the fecal energy lost in three fishes. Rs of Xingguo red carp was highest, and hybrid carp was second and mirror splittered carp was lowest. SDA showed highest value in mirror splittered carp and lower in Xingguo red carp. 5. For transgenic Huanghe carp, feeding rate, growth and feed conversion efficiency of lipid and energy were significantly higher than that of the control. But feed conversion efficiency of dry matter and protein were significantly lower than the control. The proportion of food energy deposited into growth was significantly higher and that lost in metabolism was significantly lower than the controls. There was no significant difference in fecal energy and excretion between the two groups. Rs of transgenic Huanghe carp was significantly higher and SDA% was significantly lower than the controls.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12616
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
外源因子及内源因子对几种养殖鱼类生长影响的比较能量学研究.周萌[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2001.20-25
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