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题名: 用水生态毒理学方法评价化学污染物的潜在危害
作者: 陈加平
答辩日期: 2001
导师: 徐立红 ; 吴振斌
专业: 环境科学
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
学位: 硕士
关键词: 多环芳烃 ; 苯并(a)芘 ; 家用洗涤剂 ; 浮游动物 ; 生物标志物 ; 毒性效应 ; 毒性评价
摘要: 探讨并建立对化学物进行筛选和对水环境进行评价的方法是环境科学研究中的重要科学问题,而水生态毒理学研究方法及水生生物多项生物标志物的采用是评价化学污染物对水生态系统和水质潜在影响的最有效的手段。本研究选用PAH类物质和家用洗涤剂作为研究物质,探讨用水生态毒理学原理和生物标志物评价化学物的方法,并对环境中广泛存在的物质的潜在危害做出评价。主要研究结果如下:1、金丝(鱼立)在用B(a)P短期暴露处理后,在行为正常时,鳃ATP酶活性降低,肝GST活性升高,肝DNA加合物水平增大,这一方面表明B(a)P致毒对鱼的早期影响,另一方面证明多项生物标志物能够很好地综合反映B(a)P的毒性包括潜在的致癌性。2、不同水质状况的水体中,贝类鳃中DNA加合物水平与贝体内PAHs含量具有相关性,并与水体水质状况相一致。说明DNA加合物作为指标不仅较为客观地反映了环境中污染物的状况,也预示了生物本身可能受到的影响。3、几种家用洗涤剂对大型溞和鱼有急性毒性,离体和活体条件下均对鱼ATP酶有抑制作用,对鱼急性毒性以及对ATP酶的影响不受家用洗涤剂溶液存放时间的影响;在非致死浓度下对浮游动物繁殖有明显影响。这证明家用洗涤剂对鱼和浮游动物有十分明显的毒性影响。4、鲫鱼在极低浓度的家用洗涤剂中暴露两周时,各项生物标志物都反映了家用洗涤剂对鲫鱼的影响,表明可用多项生物标志物来检测化学物对生物的早期影响,同时,也进一步证实家用洗涤对鱼和浮游动物的潜在危害应该受到重视。
英文摘要: Development and establishment of the methods for screening chemicals and evaluating aquatic environment are important scientific issues in environmental research. Aquatic ecotoxicological principles and comprehensive biomarkers of aquatic organisms are the most effective ways to evaluate the potential effects of chemical pollutants to aquatic ecosystem and water quality. In this study PAHs and domestic detergents were selected to explore the method for using aquatic ecotoxicology principles and biomarkers to evaluate chemicals, and to evaluate the potential hazard of extensively existent substance in the environment. The main results are shown as below: 1. After gold-lined sea bream was short time exposed to benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), while its behavior was normal, its gill ATPase activity decreased, and liver GST activity and DNA adduct level increased. The result, on one hand suggested the early effect of B(a)P on fish, on the other hand indicated comprehensive biomarkers could reflect the toxicities of B(a)P including potential carcinogenicity. 2. In water bodies with different water quality, mussel gill DNA adduct levels showed a correlation with concentrations of PAHs and were very close to the status of water quality. This result made clear that DNA adduct, as a biomarker, not only reflected the status of pollutions in the environment objectively, but also implied possible influence on organism. 3. The domestic detergents had acute toxicity on Daphnia magna, HB and fish fries, in vitro and in vivo inhibition on ATPase of fish, and significant effect on the reproduction of zooplankton at non-lethal concentration. The toxicities exerted by domestic detergents on fish and daphnia are very obviously. 4. When crucian carp was exposed to detergents with very lower concentration for two weeks, each biomarker reflected the effect of detergents on it. This result showed that comprehensive biomarkers could be used to detect the early influence of chemicals on organism. It is also further proved that attention should be given to potential hazards of domestic detergents on fish and zooplankton.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12612
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
用水生态毒理学方法评价化学污染物的潜在危害.陈加平[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2001.20-25
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