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题名: 氯氰菊酯对藻类及大型(左氵右蚤)的生态毒理学研究
作者: 熊丽
答辩日期: 2001
导师: 吴振斌
专业: 水生生物学
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 氯氰菊酯 ; 斜生栅藻 ; 大型(左氵右蚤) ; 生态毒理学 ; 毒性效应 ; 光合色素 ; 富集和降解 ; 抗氧化酶 ; 谷胱甘肽
摘要: 氯氰菊酯(cypermethrin)是拟除虫菊酯类的广谱性杀虫剂,为一种神经轴突毒剂,适用于棉花、水稻、蔬菜、果树和茶叶等多种作物上害虫的防治。施于环境中的农药,不仅作用于靶生物以防治病害,而且对非靶生物也产生影响,从而导致生态系统结构改变,功能破坏。大量有关氯氰菊酯对水生生物毒性效应的研究主要集中在鱼类、哺乳类等脊椎动物。本文选择极常见的浮游藻类斜生栅藻(Scenedesmus obliquus Kutz),枝角类动物大型(左氵右蚤)(Daphnia magna Straus)作为实验生物,研究氯氰菊酯对它们的毒性、生理生化效应及其对氯氰菊酯的生物富集和降解;并对氯氰菊酯的毒性、生理生化效应及其富集和降解之间的关系进行了较系统的分析和讨论。主要研究结果如下:1.由于氯氰菊酯的水溶性较低,故选用丙酮、乙酸乙酯作为有机溶剂。为排除溶剂可能对实验结果的干扰,在实验中首先测定了丙酮、乙酸乙酯对藻类的毒性影响,结果显示,丙酮和乙酸乙酯对斜生栅藻的生长均有所影响。丙酮和乙酸乙酯对斜生栅藻的NOEC(No obserred effect concentration,不可见效应浓度)值分别为0.15%和0.20%,即正式实验中作为溶剂的丙酮和乙酸乙酯的浓度应低于0.15%和0.20%。2.氯氰菊酯对斜生栅藻的生长有明显的抑制,其96hr-EC_(50)分别为112.45(乙酸乙酯溶)和109.95 mg/1(丙酮溶),可见氯氰菊酯对非靶生物中的水生藻类毒性较低。但如果有高浓度的氯氰菊酯存在下,对藻类的毒性亦较大,藻类种群受到影响后,其生物多样性会遭到破坏,这些必然会影响到高一级食物链,进而影响到整个生态系统,因此,氯氰菊酯对藻类的毒性亦不可低估。3.氯氰菊酯对斜生栅藻的光合色素含量亦有影响,处理9 6小时后三种色素(叶绿素a,叶绿素b和类胡萝卜素)的含量均有所下降,表现明显的毒性作用。其中叶绿素a和类胡萝卜素变化更为敏感,叶绿素a/b比值亦有变化,对叶绿素总量也有明显抑制,说明斜生栅藻的生长(生物量)受到明显抑制。氯氰菊酯对斜生栅藻的吸收光谱的影响仅表现在吸收峰值的大小上,并未影响到其吸收峰的位置,表明氯氰菊酯对斜生栅藻主要影响到生物量的大小,尚未影响到叶绿体中光合色素的组成。4.用透射电镜观察的结果表明,经氯氰菊酯处理9 6小时后的斜生栅藻,其超微结构发生明显改变。叶绿体中的类囊体片层膨胀不均匀造成波浪状的无序排列;细胞膜内陷皱折;线粒体脊消失;核膜破裂,核质外渗。有些细胞伤害加重,藻细胞原生质收缩,叶绿体片层以及外包膜都发生解体,细胞中心几乎成一空腔。5.斜生栅藻对氯氰菊酯有较强的富集能力。其生物富集系数(B CF)分别为1417,607,和1027。由于在藻细胞样品中除了停留时间为13.50min的氯氰菊酯特征峰外,未能检出其它物质峰,故推测斜生栅藻对氯氰菊酯农药可能主要为富集作用。Veith等(1979)研究了BCF与K_(ow)的关系,发现有如下的线性关系:LogBCF = 0.76logK_(ow) - 0.23 (n = 84,r = 0.9072)本研究首次将Veith的模型应用于藻类毒理研究。经测定氯氰菊酯农药的正辛醇/水分配系数(K_(ow))为13852,根据本实验的K_(ow)值,用此模型推算出氯氰菊酯的BCF理论值为1180,与实测值相符。6.氯氰菊酯能引起藻类细胞脂质过氧化而产生毒性。氯氰菊酯胁迫使斜生栅藻细胞内的活性氧含量增加,谷胱甘肽含量,谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶,谷胱甘肽-S转移酶和黄嘌呤氧化酶活性都有不同程度的增加,表明细胞受到活性氧伤害后,被诱导合成这些酶类等来清除这些自由基。在高浓度氯氰菊酯的胁迫下,藻类细胞中抗氧化作用酶系统的受损打破了藻类细胞内活性氧产生与清除间的平衡,使活性氧产生并积累,过量的活性氧引起藻类膜脂过氧化程度加重,从而对藻类产生毒害。对生物抗氧化体系的作用机理,在藻类研究中较少涉及。本工作所探索,总结的试验方法,对今后研究藻类生化特性提供借鉴。7.氯氰菊酯对大型的毒性较强,氯氰菊酯对大型(左氵右蚤)24h-LC_(50)为4.81 ± 0.40 mg/L,其实验室毒性属于中毒等级。大型(左氵右蚤)对氯氰菊酯的生物富集系数(BCF)为1518~2474,大型(左氵右蚤)对氯氰菊酯的生物富集作用较斜生栅藻大。
英文摘要: Cypermethrin, one of the widely used insecticides, is very efficient on agricultural and sanitary pest control. It may pose potential environmental hazards to the aquatic ecosystems because it can be acutely toxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic to organisms. The ecotoxicological concerns of cypermethrin have focused on the effect to protozoans, insects, benthic invertebrates and aquatic vertebrates. In this paper, the toxic effect of cypermethrin on green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus Kutz) and cladocera (Daphnia managna straus), their bioaccumulation and biodegradability of cypermethrin are reported. The interaction of toxicity, physiological and biochemical effects, bioaceumulation and biodegradability of cypermethrin by algae and cladocera was discussed. All results are summarized as follows: 1. Acetone and ethly acetate were used as organic solvents in this study considering the higher octanol-water partition coefficient of cypermethrin. The NOEC (No Observed Effect Concentration) of acetone and ethly acetate on S. obliquus were 0.15% and 0.20% respectively. Suggesting that the test concentrations of these two solvents should remain below 0.15% and 0.20% respectively. 2. It was found that growth of S. obliquus was inhibited by treating with cypermethrin. The 96hr-EC_(50) of cypermethrin were 112 and ll0mg/L dilluted in ethly acetate and acetone respectively, which indicates that toxicity of cypermethrin was rather low on algae, its non-target organisms. But once the concentration was high enough, the toxic effect would be enlarged and thus inhibited the growth of algal populations, disturbed algal biodiversity and aquatic food-web. Therefore, the toxic effect of eypermethrin on algae should not be underestimated. 3. The synthesis of photosynthetic pigments were inhibited by cypermethrin also. Treated with cypermethrin for 96 hours later, a decrease of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid could be observed. Among them, the changes of carotenoids were most sensitive to the cypermethrin stress, suggesting it can be used as biomarker for ecological risk assessment. The peak values of pigment absorption spectrum were affected by cypermethrin, implying that the structure of pigments were destroyed to some extent. 4. The ultrastructure of S. obliquus changed after treatment with cypermethrin for 10 days, especially the organelle such as chloroplasts and mitochondria, and also the cell membrane. Comparing with the control, the thylakoid lamella of the treated algal cells were disordered, the cristae numbers in the mitochondria reduced and some of the nuclear membrane broken. To make it worse, some ceils were injured heavily that the protoplast shrink and the thylakoid disintegrated so that the center of the cell mm into empty. 5. Algal cells had great accumulation potential for cypermethrin. More than 75% of the induced cypermethrin can be detected within the the algal cells after S. obliquus was treated with cypermethrin at concentration of 10mg/l for 10 days. Its bioaccumulation factor (BCF) was 607-1417. Besides the characteristic peak (retention time: 13.50) of cypermethrin, no new absorption peak can be detected, suggesting that the bioaccumulation was the main process. The measured octanol-water partition coefficient (K_(ow)) is 13852 by HPLC analysis. The estimated BCF and the measured one is near related. Implying the K_(ow) can be used as a very important index in assessment of insecticides. 6. The toxicity of cypermethrin to algae is due to the lipid peroxidation in cells. Under cypermethrin stress, the content of active oxygen, glutathione (GSH), the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), gluthatione S-transferase (GST) and Xanthine Oxidase (XOD) of algal cells increased, indicating that these anti-oxidant enzymes were stimulated to eliminate the free radicales. These results indicate that under cypermethrin of high concentration stress, the normal balance between production and elimination of excessive active oxygen accumulated, making that lipid peroxidation aggravates, the damage of algae.by cypermethrin was resulted. 7. It is seen that D. magna is sensitive to the cypermethrin. The 24hr-EC_(50) was 4.81 ±0.40 mg/L. Its bioaccumulation factor (BCF) was 1518--2474, which is higher than that of S.obliquus.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12604
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
氯氰菊酯对藻类及大型(左氵右蚤)的生态毒理学研究.熊丽[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2001.20-25
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