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题名: 中国串珠藻目的研究
作者: 谢树莲
答辩日期: 2001
导师: 刘永定 ; 施之新
专业: 水生生物学
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 串珠藻目 ; 系统分类 ; 种内变异 ; 生态分布 ; 系统发育分析 ; 地理分布 ; 起源 ; 濒危原因 ; 保护对策 ; 中国
摘要: 串珠藻目属红藻门,真红藻纲,全部种类生于淡水中,是淡水红藻的主要类群。本文对中国的串珠藻目植物进行了研究,除系统分类外,还包括种内变异、生态分布特点、系统发育分析、现代地理分布及可能的起源和珍稀濒危原因及保护对策等方面。本文描述了目前已知并确认的中国产串珠藻目植物共3科,5属,45种(含变种,下同),即红索藻科(1属,4种),串珠藻科(2属,35种)和鱼子菜科(2属,6种)。其中包括7个新种,即彭州串珠藻,云南串珠藻,假枝藻状串珠藻,过渡串珠藻,黄山连珠藻,粗壮鱼子菜和分枝鱼子菜,4个新变种,即棘刺红索藻小孢变种,蓝色红索藻长毛变种,胶串珠藻哑铃变种和胶串珠藻皱壁变种,还有中国新记录1属,18种。对串珠藻目植物种内变异的初步研究结果表明,种内变异是普遍存在的,变异范围较大的,多属数量性状,而且营养结构较生殖结构特征具有更大的变异性。一些高度可变的性状虽然分类价值不大,但在生态适应上有重要意义。以17个分类单位(包括外类群)作为研究对象,选取18个性状作为研究基础,以分支分类学的方法对串珠藻目的系统发育过程进行分析。结果表明,在串珠藻目中,以红索藻科最为原始,它向两个方向演化,一支演化为串珠藻科,另一支演化为鱼子菜科。在串珠藻科中,以串珠藻组较为原始,而假枝藻属和托氏藻属则较为进化。对串珠藻属的两个种进行连续观察的结果表明,其生长过程具有明显的季节变化,一般在晚秋到早夏生长良好。影响串珠藻目植物分布的主要环境因子有水体温度、光照强度、水流速度、化学因子和生物因子等。我国的45种串珠藻目植物分布于19个省(市、自治区),以华东、华中和西南地区种类较丰富,而西北、华北和东北地区种类较贫乏。串珠藻目植物的特有化程度很高,特有种占到全部种类的近一半,其原因可能与其特殊的生长环境有关。对串珠藻目植物的现代地理分布和可能的起源也进行了初步分析。初步确定串珠藻目植物的现代地理分布中心在东亚和东南亚地区,北美和大洋洲是两个次分布中心。推测串珠藻目植物可能的起源地在古北大陆和古南大陆相连接的地区,可能的起源时间在三叠纪之前。文中对串珠藻目植物可能的起源和散布途径也作了推测,对其现代分布格局及成因也进行了初步分析。本文最后还对串珠藻目植物的珍稀濒危原因进行了分析,同时也提出了它的保护对策。
英文摘要: Batrachospermales is an order belonging to Florideophyceae, Rhodophyta. All species of Batrachospermales live in freshwater and are the major part of freshwater red algae. The present paper deals with the species of Batrachospermales from China, including their systematics, intraspecific variation, ecological distribution characteristics, phylogenetic analysis, modern geographical distribution, possible origin, endangerment causes and conservation strategies. Three families, 5 genera and 45 species (including varieties, the same below) of Batrachospermales are described in this paper and it is the complete list of taxa in China at present. They are Thoreaceae (1 genus, 4 species), Batrachospermaceae (2 genera, 35 species) and Lemaneaceae (2 genera, 6 species). Among them, there are 7 new species, 4 new varieties, which are Batrachospermum pengzhouense, B. yunnanense, B. nothocladoideus, B. transitorium, Sirodotia huangshanensis, Lemanea crassa, 1;. Ramosa, Thorea hispida var. minorspora, T. violacea var. pilosa, B. gelanosum var. dumbbellum and B. gelanosum var. rugoparietum. One genus (Paralemanea) and 18 species are reported for the first time in China. The studies on intraspecific variation of Batrachospermales were made. The results show that the intraspecific variation is widespread. Most of numerical characters are in great variable range. Compared with the reproductive organs, the vegetative organs are more variable. Some characters with high variation are no evident systematic value, but they are important to ecological adaptation. A research was undertaken to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships in Batrachospermales using the principles of cladistic analysis in the present work. In the analysis, 17 taxa (including outgroup) were selected and 18 informative characters were used. The results suggest that Thoreaceae is the most primitive of Batrachospermales and it evolved along two lines: one to Batrachospermaceae and the other to Lemaceae. In Batrachospermceae, the Section Batrachospermum of the genus Batrachospermum is primitive and the genus Nothocladus and Tuomeya are advanced. The results from the observation of 2 species, Batrachospermum anatinum and B. gelatinosum, show that there is obvious seasonal change during their growing. Such as, they grow well from late autumn to early summer. The main environmental factors affecting the distribution of Batrachospermales include water temperature, illumination, current velocity, chemical and biological factors. Forty-five species of Batrachospermales from China are distributed over 19 provinces. Species are abundant in East China, Central China and Southwest China, but poor in Northeast China, North China and Northwest China. Endemic species are rich and composed of nearly a half of all. The phenomenon is related to habitats of Batrachospermales. A preliminary analysis on modern geographical distribution of Batrachospermales and its possible origin were made. The modern geographical distribution centre of Batrachospermales is located in East Asia and Southeast Asia, while North America and Oceanica form two secondary distribution centres. Based on this analysis, it is presumed that Batrachospermales possible originated in the boundering area of ancient Gondwanan and Laurasian continents. The possible orgin time of Batrachospermales could have been traced back to earlier than the Triassic Period. It was also discussed that the possible ways of origin, the possible routes of dispersal, the modern distribution pattern and the factors resulted in this formation of Batrachospermales. Finally, the endangerment causes of Batrachospermales were analyzed and in view of this situation, some conservation strategies were suggested in this paper.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12596
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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