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肉骨粉替代鱼粉的配合饲料中促摄食物质研究:异育银鲫的选择、适应及生长
薛敏
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor崔奕波
2001
Degree Grantor中国科学院水生生物研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院水生生物研究所
Degree Discipline水生生物学
Keyword促摄食物质 替代蛋白 筛选 适应 生长 异育银鲫
Abstract本研究通过摄食生长对比实验,系统地研究了促摄食物质和肉骨粉替代水平对异育银鲫摄食选择、对不同适口性饲料的适应以及尘长各方面的影响。首先采用稀土元素氧化物标记法,对甜菜碱、甘氨酸、L一赖氨酸、L-蛋氨酸、L-苯丙氨酸和Squid1650等在异育银鲫饲料中,对肉骨粉部分替代鱼粉后适口性的影响进行研究。每一种促摄食物质设定4个添加水平(甜菜碱:O,0.10%,O.50%,1.00%:其它促摄食物质:0,O.1 0%,0.25%,0.50%)。在实验中,选择了2种基础饲料(等氮:40%粗蛋白),鱼粉组(FM)中鱼粉的使用量为26%,肉骨粉组(MBM)中使用了6%的肉骨粉替代其中5%的鱼粉。在对其它5种促摄食物质的实验中,分别在FM和MBM组中添加0.1 0%和0.50%的甜菜碱以进行比较。在对每一种促摄食物质的实验中,每组饲料设定3个重复,分别饱食投喂FM和MBM基础饲料7天。接下来的7天内,将各组中包括对照及每个梯度的促摄食物质的饲料(每一种饲料分别以不同的稀土元素氧化物进行标记:Y_20_3,Yb_20_3,La_20_3,Sm_20_3或Nd_20_3)等量称重,混合投喂。实验的最后3天,收集每一桶鱼的粪便,根据粪便中每一种标记物的相对比率比较异育银鲫对相应每一种饲料的选食倾向。结果表明:投喂FM组的饲料的摄食率高于MBM组,但是只有在甜菜碱、甘氨酸和蛋氨酸组表现出显著差异。以上各种促摄食物质在FM组饲料中都没有显示出促摄食作用,但是在MBM组中却都有明显的作用,其中异育银鲫对添加O.50%甜菜碱、O.10%甘氨酸、0.25%赖氨酸、0.10%蛋氨酸、O.25%苯丙氨酸和O.10%Squid 1650的饲料都显示出明显的选食倾向。相对而言,Squid 1650所起的促摄食作用最为明显。在以上结果的基础上进一步探讨了异育银鲫对添加Squid 1650和肉骨粉替代饲料的适应性,同时研究异育银鲫鱼种是否能够适应更高水平的肉骨粉替代量。研究的对象为异育银鲫鱼种和成鱼,鱼种实验设定2个替代水平,成鱼实验只设定1个替代水平。另外,每一组饲料都设定添加和不添加Squid IX 1650两种。鱼种的6种饲料和成鱼的4种饲料都分为两个系列,一个系列不添加任何惰性标记物,另一个系列在饲料中分别添加不同的稀土元素氧化.物:Y_20_3,Yb_20_3,La_20_3,Sm_20_3,Nd_20_3和Gd_20_3(成鱼饲料只添加前4种)。共进行4个实验,分别对异育银鲫鱼种和成鱼设定对3d、7d、14d和28d 4个适应周期,进行摄食适应性验证。每种饲料设3个重复,分别投喂鱼种和成鱼基础料,持续6天。之后3天内,分别投喂各种饲料(未加稀土元素氧化物),在接下来的2天,鱼种组将6种饲料,成鱼组将4种饲料(添加各种稀土元素氧化物)等量称重,混匀后投喂。实验的最后2天,停止投喂任何饲料,收集每桶鱼的粪便,根据粪便中每一种标记物的相对比率比较异育银鲷对相应每一种饲料的选食倾向。结果表明:Squid 1650的添加有助于提高摄食率,而随着肉骨粉替代水平的提高,异育银鲫鱼种和成鱼的摄食率均逐渐下降,但各组间差异不显著。从3d到28d,随着适应周期的延长,异育银鲫鱼种和成鱼对不同适口性饲料的适应均在逐渐增强,对肉骨粉替代饲料的平均选食系数逐渐增高,Squid 1 650对平均选食系数的积极影响随之减弱。平均选食系数最高值与最低值之间的差值逐渐减小。成鱼对各种饲料的适应性在一定时期内有波动性,但适应28d以后,异育银鲫鱼种和成鱼对各种饲料的平均选食系数差异均不再显著。说明,经过28天的适应,Squid 1650对饲料平均选食系数的影响不再显著,异育银鲫对适口性较差的肉骨粉替代鱼粉饲料的平均选食系数与FM组间差异也不显著。最后,研究了Squid 1650的添加以及肉骨粉部分替代鱼粉饲料对异育银鲫生长各方面的影响。研究的对象仍为异育银鲫鱼种和成鱼,实验共进行8周,鱼种实验设定2个替代水平,成鱼实验设定1个替代水平。另外,每一组饲料都设定添加和不添加Squid 1650两种,每种饲料中均添加100mg/kg的Y_20_3作为惰性标记物,用于测定饲料的表观消化率,以增重率、特定生长率、饲料系数、蛋白质贮积效率、摄食率和干物质与蛋白质的表观消化率等为评定指标。最终结果表明,在一定时期内,Squid 1650对提高异育银鲫饲料的适口性X有明显作用。在不影响鱼类上长各项指标的前提下,不添加促摄食物质,异育银鲫鱼种饲料中肉骨粉可以替代5%的鱼粉,添加促摄食物质,可以替代10%的鱼粉。成鱼饲料中肉骨粉可以替代4%的鱼粉,但是需要添加促摄食物质
Other AbstractThe objectives were to investigate the effects of feeding stimulants on diet preference, feeding adaptation and growth by gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), fed diets with or without replacement of fish meal by meat and bone meal. Firstly, 6 feeding stimulants, betaine, glycine, L-lysine, L-methionine, L-phenylalanine and Squid 1650 were tested for preference. Four inclusion levels were tested for each stimulant (0, 0.10, 0.50, and 1.00% for betaine and 0, 0.10, 0.25 and 0.50% for the other stimulants). Two basal diets (40% crude protein) were used, one with 26% fish meal (FM), and the other with 21% fish meal and 6% meat and bone meal (MBM). Betaine at 0.10% in the fish meal group and at 0.50% in the meat and bone meal group was used in all experiments for comparison among stimulants. In the experiment on each stimulant, six tanks of fish were equally divided into two groups, one fed the FM diet, and the other fed the MBM diet. After 7 days adaptation to the basal diet, in which the fish XII were fed to satiation twice a day, the fish were fed for another 7 days an equal mixture of diets containing varying levels of stimulants. Each diet contained a unique rare earth oxide as marker (Y_20_3, Yb_20_3, La_20_3, Sm_20_3 or Nd_20_3) . During the last 3 days of the experiment, faeces from each tank were collected. Preference for each diet was estimated based on the relative concentration of each marker in the faeces. Gibel carp fed the FM diet had higher feed intake than those fed the MBM diet, but the difference was significant only in the experiments on betaine, glycine and L-methionine. None of the feeding stimulants tested showed feeding enhancing effects in FM diets. All feeding stimulants showed feeding enhancing effects in MBM diets, and the optimum inclusion level was 0.50% for betaine, 0.10% for glycine, 0.25% for L-lysine, 0.10% for L-methionine, 0.25% for L-phenylalanine, and 0.10% for squid 1650. The Squid 1650 had the strongest stimulating effect among all the stimulants tested. The objectives of the second trial were to investigate the effect of squid 1650 on feeding adaptation by gibel carp fed diets with or without replacement of fish meal by meat and bone meal, and whether or not the juvenile gibe carp could adapt to higher MBM level in the diet. The tested fish were juvenile and adult gibel carp. Two and one replacing levels were used for juvenile and adult respectively. Each group of diets was set as two types with or without a unique rare earth oxide: Y_20_3, Yb_20_3, La_20_3, Sm_20_3 or Nd_20_3 (only pre-four rear earth oxide were used in adult diets) for 4 adaptation XIII period of 3d, 7d, 14d and 28d respectively. Thereafter, an equal mixture of all 6 diets for juvenile and 4 diets for adult were offered in excess for 2 days. During the last 2 days of each experiment, no any diets were offered and faeces from each tank were collected. Preference for each diet was estimated based on the relative concentration of each marker in the faeces. Squid 1650 could promote feed intake of gibel carp. The fish fed the FM diet had higher intake than those fed the MBM diet, and feed intake decreased with higher MBM level in juvenile diets. However, no significant difference between each group was observed. Given some adaptation period, such as 3 days to 28days, gibel carp previously adapted to fish meal with stimulant diet gradually consume well on diets containing 6% or 12% MBM with or without squid 1650. The objectives of the last part of the research were to study the effect of squid 1650 on growth performance by gibel carp fed diets with or without replacement of fish meal by meat and bone meal. An 8 weeks growth experiment was conducted by juvenile and adult gibel carp. Two and one replacing levels were used for juvenile and adult respectively. Each diet was marked by Y_20_3 for calculating the apparent digestibility coefficency. Weight gain rate, specific growth rate, food conversion ratio, protein retention efficiency, feed intake, apparent dry matter and protein digestibility coefficiency were evaluated for growth performance. Squid 1650 could enhance the palatability of diets significantly in a period. No affecting the growth XIV performance, MBM could replace 5% FM without Squid 1650 or replace 10% FM with Squid 1650 in the juvenile diet, and could replace 4% FM with Squid 1650 for adult gibel carp.
Pages131
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12590
Collection学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
薛敏. 肉骨粉替代鱼粉的配合饲料中促摄食物质研究:异育银鲫的选择、适应及生长[D]. 中国科学院水生生物研究所. 中国科学院水生生物研究所,2001.
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