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题名: CO_2浓度升高对淡水绿藻影响的研究
作者: 夏建荣
答辩日期: 2001
导师: 高坤山
专业: 水生生物学
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 淡水绿藻 ; 生长 ; 亚显微结构 ; 光合作用 ; 光抑制 ; 生化组分 ; 碳酸酐酶 ; 硝酸还原酶
摘要: 为了探讨淡水绿藻对大气CO_2浓度高的响应,以莱因衣藻(Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)、蛋白核小球藻(Chlorella pyrenoidosa)、斜生栅藻(Scenedesmus obliquus)、披针新月藻(Closterium lanceolatum)和丝藻(Ulothrix sp)作为实验材料,研究了CO_2浓度变化与这五种绿藻的关系,主要结果如下:在不同温度(15、25和35℃)和光强(50-400μ mol m~(-2) s~(-1)),培养下,CO_2浓度升高都不同程度地促进了莱因衣藻、蛋白核小球藻、斜生栅藻和披针新月藻的生长。增加CO_2浓度,从温度变化来看,蛋白核小天藻在35℃,莱因衣藻、斜生栅藻和披针新月藻在25℃时,对生长的促进作用最大;从光强度变化来看,莱因衣藻、蛋白核小球藻在400μ mol m~(-2) s~(-1),斜生栅藻和披针新月藻在200μ mol m~(-2) s~(-1)光台下,促进效应最大;今营养水平来看,在高N和高P条件下,对生长的促进程度较大。可见较高温度、较高光照条件下或营养水平较高的水体中,大气CO_2浓度升高对淡水绿藻生长的促进作用较大。CO_2浓度变化对莱因衣藻、蛋白核小球藻的细胞形态和大小没有显著影响,但斜生栅藻的细胞体积在低CO_2浓度培养下明显增大。低CO_2浓度下生长的莱因衣藻、蛋白核小球藻和斜生栅藻细胞内蛋白核周围有明显的淀粉盘。高CO_2浓度下,莱因衣藻和蛋白核小球藻叶绿素含量增加,丝藻的叶绿素含量下降,斜生栅藻叶绿素含量没有显著变化。同时,莱因衣藻和蛋白核小球藻胡萝卜素的含量增加,斜生栅藻和丝藻萝卜素含量下降;莱因衣藻、蛋白核小球藻、斜生栅藻和丝藻细胞内可溶性蛋抓和碳水化合物的含量增加。高CO_2浓度培养降低了莱因衣藻和蛋白核小球藻胞外和胞骨碳酸酐酶的活性,也低了斜生栅 和丝藻胞内碳酸酐活性;并导致了蛋白核小球藻和莱因衣藻硝酸还原酶活性的明显下降,但对斜生栅藻的硝酸还原酶活性没有显著的影响。高CO_2浓度培养使莱因衣藻、蛋白核小球藻、斜生栅藻和丝藻的光饱和光合速率和光合效率增加,丝藻暗呼吸速率增加,斜生栅藻暗呼吸速率下降,但莱因衣藻和蛋白核小球藻暗呼吸速率没有显著变化。这四种绿藻光系统II的光化学效率F_v/F_m随培养液中CO_2浓度的升高明显增加。光合作用受强光2000μ mol m~(-2) s~(-1)抑制的程度,因种类和培养过程中CO_2浓度的不同而不同。强光下,与低CO_2浓度相比,高CO_2浓度培养培导致了莱因衣藻的光化学效率较快地下降,但使蛋白核小球藻和斜生栅藻的光化学效率下降地较慢。受强光抑制后的藻细胞,在黑暗和弱光下其光合活性都有不同程度的恢复,但弱光下的恢复程度比黑暗中的大,高CO_2浓度培养的藻细胞的光合活性恢复得较好。总之,增加CO_2浓度不同程度地促进了淡水绿藻的生长,但对其生理、生化验及形态的影响则表现出了明显的种间差异。
英文摘要: Freshwater green algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Scenedesmus obliquus, Closterinum lanceolatum and Ulothrix sp were cultured at varied CO_2 levels in order to investigate the responses of freshwater green algae to increasing atmospheric CO_2. Growth of C. reinhardtii, C. pyrenoidosa, S. obliquus and C. lanceolatum was enhanced to varied extents by elevated CO_2 concentrations when they were cultured at 15, 25 and 35 ℃ and 50-400μ mol m~(-2) s~(-1). The enhancement of growth, in a view of temperature, was bigger at 35 ℃ in C. pyrenoidosa and at 25 ℃ in C. reinhardtii, S. obliquus and C. lanceolatum. In a view of light, the enhancement was more obvious under 400μ mol m~(-2) s~(-1) in C. Reinhardtii and C. pyrenoidosa and at 200μ mol m~(-2) s~(-1) in S.obliquus, C. lanceolatum. In a view of nutrient levels, it was greater with enrichment of N and P. High CO_2 concentrations resulted in faster growth of the freshwater green algae under the conditions of moderately high light intensities, high temperature, and eutrophic level. Elevated CO_2 concentrations had insignificant effect on the shape and size of C.reinhardtii and C. pyrenoidosa. Low-CO_2-grown cells of S. obliquus significantly enlarged. Starch plate around pyrenoids were observed in the above species under low CO_2. High CO_2 concentration increased the chlorophyll content of C. reinhardtii and C. pyrenoidosa, but decreased that of Ulothrix sp, and had insignificant effect on that of S. obliquus. At the same time, it resulted in increased carotene content of C. reinhardtii and C. pyrenoidosa, and decreased that of S. obliquus and Ulothrix sp. Soluble protein and carbohydrate content increased with elevated CO_2 concentration. Elevated CO_2 decreased the extracellular and intracellular CA activities in C. reinhardtii and C. pyrenoidonsa, and intracellular CA activities of S. obliquus and Ulothrix sp. Nitrate reductase activity decreased significantly in C. Reinhardtii and C. pyrenoidosa when the dells were grown under high CO_2 concentrations, but no significant effects were found in that of S. obliquus. High CO_2 resulted in the increase of maximal photosynthetic rate (P_(max)) and photosynthetic efficiency (a) of C. reinhardtii, S. obliquus, C. pyrenoidosa and Ulothrix sp, and increased the dark respiration rate of Ulothrix sp, but decreased that of S. obliquus, and insignificantly affected that of C.reinhardtii and C.pyrenoidosa. Photochemical efficiency of photosystem II significantly increased with elevated CO_2 concentrations. The extent of photoinhibition in photosynthesis differed according to species and growing CO_2 concentrations when exposed to high irradiance (2000μ molm~(-2)s~(-1)). High-CO_2-grown cells exhibited during the exposure faster decline of F_v/F_m in C. reinhardtii, but showed slowed slower decrease in C. pyrenoidosa and S. obliquus compared with low-CO_2-grown ones. The photoinhibited cells recovered their photosynthetic activity varied extents under dim light or in darkness. Recovery was faster in dim light than in darkness, and better in high-CO_2-grown C. pyrenoidosa, C. reinhardtii and S. obliquus. In conclusion, elevated CO_2 concentrations enhanced the growth of the freshwater green algae to varied but significant extents, and imposed species-specific effects on their physiology, biochemical components and morphology of these freshwater green algae.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12586
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
CO_2浓度升高对淡水绿藻影响的研究.夏建荣[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2001.20-25
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