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题名: 香溪河流域河岩植被格局与功能研究
作者: 江明喜
答辩日期: 2001
导师: 刘建康 ; 蔡庆华
专业: 水生生物学
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 香溪河流域 ; 河岸植物群落 ; 格局与功能 ; 物种丰富度 ; 凋落物 ; 树叶分解 ; 无脊椎动物
摘要: 本文主要通过大量的植物群落调查、植被和环境的关系分析、凋落物定点收集和样品袋分解实验,分别从植物区系、植物群落和主要乔木物种分布格局、植物群落物种丰富度格局、河岸林凋落物季节动态及树叶凋落物分解六个方面对香溪河流域河岸植被的格局与功能进行了研究。得到如下结果:1.根据样地资料,河岸带有维管束植物127科404属633种(含种以下等级,下同),其中包括蕨类植物9科11属12种,种子植物118科393属621种。种子植物中,裸子植物4科8属9种,被子植物114科285属612种。河岸带维管束种类在科级水平上占神农架地区的65.8%,在属级水平上占47.3%,在种级水平上占26.7%。河岸带具有较丰富的高等级分类单位。沿香溪河流域河岸带分布有各级保护植物29种。 在区系成分上,科的分布区类型以热带性质为主:在属的分布区类型中,温带性质明显。河岸植物区系成分与整个神农架地区植物区系成分相近似,具有较强的代表性。2.对河岸植被的双向指示种分析(TWlNSPAN)结果表明,河岸植物群落可划分成15个群落类型或群落类型组,它们可进一步归并为亚高山针叶林和中低海拔阔叶林两大组。在中低海拔组,又可细分为中等海拔的落叶阔叶林、低海拔的常绿阔叶林和落叶阔叶林两大类。在中等海拔的落叶林中,许多为珍稀植物群落,或者包含许多珍稀植物种类的群落。对河岸植被的CCA排序较好地区分了11个河岸植物群落类型或群落类型组。采用的5个环境和地形变量可归纳为三个范畴:①海拔,主要反映热量条件和降水的垂直变化;②坡度和坡向,主要反映土壤条件和光照条件:③河宽及河岸高,主要反映季节性洪水干扰情况。其中,海拔对河岸植物群落空间格局的变化有着最突出的影响。3.对河岸带主要植物群落的90个乔木种类同时进行双向指示种分析(TWINSPAN),得到8个种组,主要体现了沿海拔梯度的分布变化。利用CCA对22个常绿树种进行排序分析,沿着海拔梯度,常绿阔叶树种可以分成3大类群:低海拔类群、中等海拔类群和较高海拔类群。亚热带地带性常绿阔叶林的建群种类主要分布在低海拔地区;在中等海拔梯度上的常绿树种,主要是壳斗科中的常绿种类。金缕梅科的水丝梨在中亚热带和北亚热带的河岸带区域常常形成单优群落,成为亚热带地区的一种常绿成分。在较高海拔地段,常绿树种主要是杜鹃花科的常绿种类。沿海拔梯度,常绿阔叶树种逐步减少。河岸带内分布的珍稀植物种类的分析表明,在海拔梯度上,珍稀濒危植物种类同样可以分为低海拔、中等海拔和高海拔三组。根据河岸带珍稀植物的分布,利用二次方程对珍稀濒危植物的丰富度(Y)与海拔(X)之间的关系进行拟合,发现两者之问有显著的相关性(Y = -0.3636X~2 + 4.5333X - 5.7333,R~2 = 0.624,P < 0.05)。 4.对香溪河流域河岸植物群落物种丰富度的空间格局的分析表明,沿海拔梯度(x),河岸植物群落总的物种丰富度(Y1)、乔木层的物种丰富度(Y2)、草本层物种丰富度(Y3)均显示了显著的二次方关系:Y1 = -0.00001X~2 + 0.0357X + 6.0921,R~2 = 0.536,P = 0.001 Y2 = -0.000004X~2 + 0.012X - 1.5709,R~2=0.577,P=0.000 Y3 = -0.000003X~2 + 0.0105X + 5.5894,R~2 = 0.324,P = 0.024物种丰富度的最大值出现在海拔1500~1800m的山地常绿落叶阔叶林过渡区域。研究结果支持关于总的物种多样性在原始的河流中的中间河段将达到最大值的预测。灌木层和层间植物的物种丰富度在群落间的变化相当明显,在整个流域尺度上与海拔之间没有显著二次方关系。在区域尺度(或流域尺度)上,海拔对物种丰富度有着重要的控制作用。在局部尺度上,季节性洪水干扰形成的空间异质性和小地形对群落的物种多样性有着重要的影响。5.对香溪河流域一个一级河流河岸林凋落物一年的研究结果表明,研究地点凋落物的直接输入量为438.72gm~(-2)。树叶是凋落物的主要成分,占整个凋落物年产量的84%。凋落物的输入明显存在季节性的时间格局:凋落物在秋季(9~11月)的产量占全年产量的75%,春季占6.2%,夏季占13.6%,冬季为5.5%。从凋落物各组成部分占各该组成部分全年总产量的百分比可以看出:树叶的产量也显示出季节变化的趋势;枝条的产量并未显示出明显的季节变化; 花果的产量同样显示出季节性变化趋势。在秋季,树叶的产量占全年树叶总量的83%;枝条最高值出现秋季,产量占全年的29%;花果在整个凋落物中所占比重较小,最高值出现在夏季,占整个生产量的63%。着生藻类的密度年内的变化较大,存在着显著的差异,最高值出现在十一月份,达到72个cm~(-2)。最低值为一月份的7个cm~(-2)。最大值与最小值的出现月份与凋落物最大、最低值的出现在相同的月份。着生藻类密度变化与总凋落物和树叶凋落物的动态有明显的相关性(r = 0.57,P < O.05)。6.通过90d对华西枫杨、米心水青冈、多脉青冈和连香树4种河岸乔木种类树叶凋落物分解实验数据的分析,发现4个树种树叶干重的失重率分别为77%、43%、42%、71%,分解速率常数K值分别为0.0134d~(-1)、0.0062d~(-1)、0.0058d~(-1)、0.0127d~(-1),根据K值的大小,将华西枫杨和连香树归为快组,米心水青冈和多脉青冈归为中等组。对4种植物树叶凋落物干重失重率,利用指数方程拟合,得到较好的效果:华西枫杨:Y = 1O.195e~(-O.O134t),R~2=0.889,P < O.001米心水青冈:Y = 9.873e~(-0.0062t),R~2 = 0.968,P < O.001多脉青冈:Y = 1O.05e~(-0.0058t),R~2 = 0.988,P < O.001 连香树:Y = 8.8067e~(-O.0127t),R~2 = 0.950,P < O.001 在树叶分解过程中,无脊椎动物群落的变化十分明显,不同的树种在分解过程中无脊椎动物群落的相对密度不同,同一种植物树叶在不同分解时期,无脊椎动物群落的相对密度也不相同。在树叶分解的早期阶段,无脊椎动物的数量大,但个体较小;在分解的中后期,其绝对数量相对较少,但个体较大。对树叶凋落物分解过程中营养元素N、P含量变化的分析表明,N表现为一种上升的增加趋势,处于整个分解过程中的积累时期。P表现为一种波动变化。不同物种间N、P含量变化有一定差异。 在对河岸植被格局特征分析的基础上,建立了一个香溪河流域生物多样性保护的河岸带模式。
英文摘要: By way of plant communities survey, quantitative analysis of vegetation and environment, litter collection and leaf litter decomposition experiment, the spatial pattern and function of riparian vegetation in Xiangxi River Catchment were studied in this dissertation in terms of flora, plant community, chief woody species, species richness, seasonal dynamics of litter, and leaf litter decomposition. The results are as following: 1. Of known vascular plants, totally 127 families, 404 genera and 633 species (including taxa below the species level) were found along riparian zone based on plot investigation. It included 9 families, 11 genera , and 12 species of pteridophyta, 118 families, 393 genera, and 621 species of seed plants. Of seed plants, there were 4 families, 8 genera , and 9 species of gymnosperm, 114 families, 285 genera, and 612 species of angiosperm. Among the plant taxa at riparian zone, it accounted for 65.8% of Shennongjia region in family level, 47.3% in genus level, and 26.7% in species level. It is rich in high taxa level of vascular plants at riparian zone in Xiangxi River Catchment. There are 29 protected plant species distributing along riparian zone. In the component of flora, the areal-types of families were mainly tropical; and that of the genera chiefly temperate. The component of flora in riparian zone was similar to that of Shennongjia region. 2. The TWINSPAN clustering of riparian plant communities showed that: The communities could be primarily divided into 15 community types, which belong to two groups as subalpine needle-leaved forest and broad-leaved forest at Iow and middle altitude. The first group refers to Abiesfagesii forest. The second group can be divided into subgroup of deciduous broad-leaved forest at middle altitude, and subgroup of evergreen broad-leaved forest plus deciduous broad-leaved forest at low altitude. There are many rare and endangered plant communities or endangered plant species in the deciduous broad-leaved forest at middle altitude. The CCA ordination differentiated 11 types or groups of riparian plant community. The 5 environmental and landform factors used in ordination proved to be effective and could be grouped into 3' categories: ①Altitude, mainly reflecting the vertical change of temperature and precipitation; ②Slope and Aspect, mainly reflecting the soil condition and light radiation change; ③Width of fiver and height of riparian zone, mainly reflecting the information on the disturbance of seasonal flood. Altitude strongly affects the change of spatial patterns of riparian plant communities among the three.3. The clustering analysis of 90 arbor species was done by using TWINSPAN, and species could be classified into 8 groups. The result mainly reflects the distribution trend along altitude gradient. The ordination analysis of 22 evergreen arbor species was also done by using CCA. The result suggests that all evergreen species could be distinguished into 3 groups as low, middle and high along altitude gradient. The constructive species in the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest are distributed mainly in the reach a low altitude. The evergreen species at middle altitude are mainly species in the family of Fagaceae, such as Cyclobalanopsis oxydon, C. multinervis, Quercus engleriana. Sycopsis sinensis, an evergreen species of Hamamelidaceae, often forms consociation in riparian zone at middle altitude. The evergreen species of Ericaceae at relatively high altitude are dominant. The number of evergreen species decreases with the elevation of altitude. The clustering and ordination analysis of rare and endangered species distributing along riparian zone were done by using TWINSPAN and DCA. The result showed that the rare and endangered plant species could also divided into 3 groups as low, middle and high along altitude gradient. The rare and endangered species richness(Y) shows a significant quadratic relationship with altitude(X) along riparian zone (Y = -0.3636X~2 + 4.5333X - 5.7333, R~2=0.624, P < 0.05 ). 4. The analysis to spatial pattern of species richness of plant community along riparian zone showed that: each of the total species richness(Y1), arborous species richness(Y2) and herbaceous species richness(Y3) had a significant quadratic relationship with altitude. Y1 = -0.00001X~2 + 0.0357X + 6.0921, R~2 = 0.536, P = 0.001 Y2= -0.000004X~2 + 0.012X - 1.5709, R~2=0.577, P = 0.000 Y3 = -0.000003X~2 + 0.0105X + 5.5894, R~2 = 0.324, P = 0.024 The peak value appears in transitional area between mountain evergreen forest and deciduous broad-leaved forest at the altitude of 1500~1800m. The result supports the prediction that overall species diversity reaches a peak in the midreaches of pristine rivers. The changes of species richness are very obvious in shrub and liana layer at local scale among riparian plant communities. No significant quadratic relationship with altitude was found at watershed scale. Altitude has an important influence on species richness at regional (or watershed ) scale; The spatial heterogeneity caused by seasonal flood disturbance and micro-landform controls the species diversity at local scale, 5. Based on the litter collection of riparian forest in a headwater stream in the course of one year, annual litterfall at the site was 438.72gm~(-2). Leaves are the chief component, accounting for 84% of annual litterfall. Temporal pattern of litter inputs are clearly seasonal:75% of the annual litterfall occurred in autumn (September to November), 6.2% in spring(March to May), 13.6% in summer (June to August), and 5.5% in winter (December to February). The litter output of leaves , flowers and fruits also shows a seasonal trend in composition. There was no seasonal trend in that of branches. The peak period of leaves litter in autumn accounted for 83% of the annual amount of leaves, and the peak period of branches litter in autumn accounted for 29% of the annual amount of branches. And the peak period of flowers and fruits litter in summer constituted 63% of the annual amount of flowers and fruits. The density of epilithic algae showed a significant difference during the year. The highest peak occurred in November ,reaching 72 individuals cm~(-2). The lowest density in January was 7 individuals cm~(-2). The changes in the density of epilithic algae had a significant relationship with the dynamic of overall litter and leaf litter (r = 0.57, p < 0.05)6. Based on leaf litter decomposition experiment for Pterocarya insignis, Fagus engleriana, Cyclobalanopsis multinervis and Cercidiphyllum japonicum during 90 days, total leaf dry mass loss could constitute 77%, 43%, 42% and 71% respetively. The exponential decay constant K, fit to time series data, was 0.0134d~(-1), 0.0066d~(-1), 0.0058d~(-1) , and 0.0127d~(-1), respectively. According to the size of K, the 4 species can be divided into fast decomposition species group and medium decomposition species group. The former includes Pterocarya insignis and Cercidiphyllum japonicum; the later contains Fagus engleriana and Cyclobalanopsis multinervis . Using exponential equation fit time series, the rate of dry weight loss of leaf litter for 4 species showed a significant relationship. Pterocarya insignis: Y = 10.195e~(-0.0134t), R~2 = 0.889, P < 0.001 Fagus engleriana: Y = 9.8731e~(0.0062t), R~2 = 0.968, P < 0.001 Cyclobalanopsis multinervis: Y = 10.051e~(-0.0058t) R~2 = 0.988, P < 0.001 Cercidiphyllum japonicum: Y = 8.8067e~(-0.0127t), R~2 = 0.950, P < 0.001 The change of invertebrate community was obvious during the process of leaf decomposition processing. The relative density of invertebrate varied with different tree species during leaf decomposition, and with different period of leaf decomposition of the same tree species. Invertebrates were rich in number and small in body size in the early stage of leaf decomposition; on the contrary, they were less in number and big in body size in the middle and later stage of leaf decomposition. Changes of nutrient contents of N and P during leaf decomposition showed a significant difference. N manifested an increasing trend during leaf decomposition, indicative of a period of accumulation. P content showed a fluctuated change. Based on the pattern characteristics of vegetation, a riparian model of biodiversity conservation is constructed for Xiangxi River Catchment.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12582
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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香溪河流域河岩植被格局与功能研究.江明喜[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2001.20-25
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