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题名: 长吻鮠和异育银鲫幼鱼饲料蛋白需求的比较营养能量学研究
作者: 钱雪桥
答辩日期: 2001
导师: 崔奕波
专业: 水生生物学
授予单位: 中国科学院中国水生生物研究所
授予地点: 中国水生生物研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 蛋白水平 ; 蛋白需要量 ; 表观消化率 ; 生长 ; 能量利用
摘要: 本研究通过生长和呼吸仪实验比较了长吻鮠(Leiocassis longirostris Gunther)和异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)幼鱼的饲料蛋白需要量,对两种鱼类饲料蛋白需求及差异的能量学机制进行了探讨。实验设计了25%、30%、35%、40%、45%、50%六个饲料蛋白水平,通过生长实验对长吻鮠和异育银鲫幼鱼饲料蛋白质需要量进行了比较研究;通过呼吸研究了饲料蛋白水平为40.5%、45.5%(最佳需要量)和50.5%时长吻鮠的能量收支;通过呼吸试验探讨了饲料蛋白水平为33.4%、38.4%(最佳需要量)和43.4%时异育银鲫的能量收支;对最佳饲料蛋白水平下长吻鮠和异育银鲫的能量收支进行了比较研究。主要研究结果如下:1、长吻鮠和异育银鲫幼鱼的饲料蛋白质需要量分为别为45.5%和38.4%。2、长吻鮠和异育银鲫的生长分别随饲料蛋白水平增加而增加,至最适蛋白水平(45%和35%)后维持相对稳定;除饲料蛋白水平最高时的异育银鲫的摄食率显著提高外,饲料蛋白水平对长吻鮠和异育银鲫的摄食率没有明显影响;随饲料蛋白水平的增加,长吻鮠的饲料转化效率显著提高而异育银鲫没有明显变化;异育银鲫的蛋白效率和蛋白贮积率随饲料蛋白水平增加而降低,而长吻鮠没有明显变化;长吻鮠和异育银鲫的能量贮积率分别随饲料蛋白水平增加至需要量时,然后呈下降趋势;随饲料蛋白水平的增加,长吻鮠和异育银鲫的鱼体蛋白质含量呈上升趋势,灰分含量呈下降趋势,除异育银鲫能量含量在最高饲料蛋白水平时显著降低外,干物质、脂肪和能量含量没有明显变化。3、在排粪30s内收集样品测得的长吻鮠和异育银鲫的干物质、蛋白质和能量消化率随饲料蛋白水平的增加而增加,而不同蛋白水平下异育银鲫摄食后16h收集粪样测得的干物质、蛋白质和能量消化率没有明显变化;对于每一种饲料,当异育银鲫分别摄食40%、45%和50%饲料蛋白时,摄食16h后收集粪样测得的干物质、蛋白质和能量消化率均显著高于排粪30s内收集粪样的测定值,而饲料蛋白含量为25%、30%和35%时,粪便收集时间对异育银鲫的表观消化率没有显著影响。4、代谢试验中,长吻鮠和异育银鲫的生长结果与长期生长试验一致;除饲料蛋白含量为50.5%时长吻鮠的排粪能显著降低外,长吻鮠和异育银鲫的排粪能占食物能的比例不受饲料蛋白水平的影响;长吻鮠和异育银鲫的排泄能占食物能的比例随饲料蛋白水平增加而上升,而代谢能和SDA占食物能的比例没有明显变化。5、最佳饲料蛋白水平时,长吻鮠和异育银鲫的能量收支式分别为:长吻鮠合 1000C = 11.64F + 8.29U + 37.98R + 38.08G; 异育银鲫 100C = 16.49F + 7.17U + 44.66R + 23.75G;比较长吻鮠和异育银鲫的能量分配模式后发现,长吻鮠的排泄能和代谢能占食物能的比例要低于异育银鲫,而生长能占食物能的比例要显著高于异育银鲫。式中C、F、U、R和G分别为摄食、排粪、排泄、代谢和生长。
英文摘要: Nutritional energetics in juvenile CHinese long-snout catfish (Leiocassis longirostris G unther) and gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) in relation to dietary protein level were comparatively studied by the growth trial and respirometry. In growth trial, six experimental diets containing different dietary protein levels (25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45% and 50%) were fed to long-snout catfish and gibel carp. Respiration trials were conducted to investigate the energy allocation of Chinese long-snout catfish fed diets containing 45.5%, 45.5% and 50.5% protein and that of gibel carp fed diets containing 33.4%, 38.4% and 43.4% protein. The main results were shown as the following: 1. Dietary protein requirements of Chinese long-snout catfish and gibel carp were 45.5% and 38.4% respectively. 2. Growth of Chinese long-snout catfish and gibel carp increased with dietary protein up to 45% and 35% respectively, and showed no significant difference above the optimum level. Feeding rate of Chinese long-snout catfish was no affected by dietary protein level while that of gibel carp increased at 50% protein level. Feed conversion efficiency for Chinese long-snout catfish increased with the increase in dietary protein level, while no significant difference was observed for gibel carp. With the increased dietary protein level, protein efficiency ratio and protein retention efficiency for gibel carp significant decreased, while no significant difference was observed for Chinese long-snout catfish. Energy retention efficiency for Chinese long-snout catfish and gibel carp increased with the increasing dietary protein up to the optimal level, then showed slight decreased. Body protein content of Chinese long-snout catfish and gibel carp significant increased with dietary protein level, while ash content decreased. Except for energy content of gibel carp, body dry matter, lipid and energy content for two fishes were not affected by dietary protein level. 3. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, protein and energy increased for long-snout catfish and gibel carp with the increasing dietary protein when faeces were collected within 30s, while no significant difference were observed when faeces were collected after 16h. When the faeces were collected within 30s, the apparent digestibility was higher than that collected after 16h for the diets containing 40%, 45% and 50% protein, while no significant difference for the diets containing 25%, 30% and 35% protein. 4. Chinese long-snout catfish and gibel carp showed similar growth tendency in respirometry with increased dietary protein level. The proportion of food energy lost in feces was no affected by dietary protein level, except that for Chinese long-snout catfish at 50.5% protein level was significantly lower. The excretion energy increased with dietary protein level in two fishes while metabolism and SDA showed no significant difference. 5. At optimum dietary protein level, the energy budget could be expressed as: Chinese long-snout catfish: 100C = 11.64F + 8.29U + 37.98R + 38.08G; Gibel carp: 100C = 16.49F + 7.17U + 44.66R + 23.75G; where C、F、U、R and G were energy intake, fecal energy, excretion energy, metabolism energy and growth energy. It suggested that, compared to gibel carp, the proportion of food energy lost in feces and metabolism was lower and that in growth was higher for Chinese long-snout catfish.、
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12574
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
长吻鮠和异育银鲫幼鱼饲料蛋白需求的比较营养能量学研究.钱雪桥[d].中国科学院中国水生生物研究所,2001.20-25
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