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中华绒螯蟹渔业生物学及其湖泊渔业管理
金刚
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor谢平
2001
Degree Grantor中国科学院水生生物研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院水生生物研究所
Degree Discipline水生生物学
Keyword中华绒螯蟹 食性 生长动态 性早熟 种群数量 鱼类 养殖容量 日产量 回捕率 放流 生态学 生物学 沉水植物群落 草型湖泊 渔业管理
Abstract本文研究了中华绒螯蟹(简称河蟹),Eriocheir sinensis H. Milne Edwards,在长江中下游典型草型湖泊中的放流生态学及相关的渔业生物学,包括食性、生长动态、种群数量的衰减规律、性早熟现象、若干种鱼类对早期幼蟹生长与存活的影响、不同密度和规格的河蟹对水生植被的影响、养殖容量等。此外,本研究对成蟹日产量变动规律和河蟹放流效果进行了综合分析,并通过湖泊沉水植被恢复实验探讨了湖泊优质高效渔业的生态学管理模式。主要结果如下:1. 对362只二龄河蟹(壳宽1.99-6.24cm)胃含物分析表明,河蟹以底层生物群落为食,食谱极为复杂。各大类食物及其出现频率分别为水生维管束植物87.3%、藻类(47个属)82.0%、节肢动物48.2%、环节动物28.2%、鱼类28.7%、原生动物0.3%、轮虫0.6%、软体动物0.3%,以及颗粒碎屑88.7%。而不分分辨物在食物团中较为常见,出现频率达46.1%。植物性饵料(维管束植物+藻类)出现频率为87.7%,动物性饵料出现频率89.8%;食物团完全由大型植物组成的点5.3%,完全由藻类组成的占0.3%,完全由动物性饵料组成的点5.8%。T-检验表明二龄雌、雄河蟹在食性方面不存在显著差异。细胞计数表明,胃含物中维管束植物在数量上比藻类多2个数量级。2.生长研究表明,不论雌雄,不论苗种的水系来源,放流在长江中游湖泊的二龄河蟹体重的生长动态均可用逻辑斯谛方程描述。通过分析特定生长率,发现河解壳宽与体重的生长有不同步现象。3.从6月到10月当年幼蟹在网箱中的存活率变动在11.5-26.9%之间,平均19.2%。幼蟹存活率曲线可以用半对数方程表示:Survival Rate = 1.016 - 0.422 log Days。对于二龄河蟹,标志重捕法能够较好地估算种群数量,指数方程能够较好地描述二龄河蟹的成活率变动趋势:Survival Rate = 106.3exp (-0.007Days)。4.早熟河蟹成熟系数在翌年3月份达到峰值,♀蟹为12.32±1.75%,♂蟹为4.24±0.06%,此后,性腺迅速退化,至翌年七月上旬,卵巢退变成细索状结构,已无完整的卵粒。早熟河蟹不脱壳,体重维持在原有水平,摄食量低,个体不断死亡,至7月中旬,群体全部死完,表明草型湖泊中早熟河蟹没有放养价值。但若在三月份以前(性腺未退化)起捕早熟河蟹,可获得一定的渔业效益。5.在网箱中观察了鳜鱼、黄颡鱼、乌鳢和鲤鱼对早期幼蟹生长和存活的影响。结果表明,这四种鱼类对幼蟹生长均没有抵制效应,但对幼蟹存活率的影响并非一致,鳜鱼没有影响,而其它三种鱼对幼蟹存活率有显著的负效应。6.在移栽有沉水植物的网箱和水泥池,放养不同规格和密度的河蟹,以定量研究河蟹对沉水植物的影响,进而探讨草型湖泊河蟹的养殖容量。草型湖泊河蟹的养殖容量(或负荷力)可以定义为对水生植被的生长没有显著影响时的最大的河蟹现存量。通过河蟹放养密度与沉水植物相对生长率的分析,获得了不同规格河蟹的养殖容量,并提出在草型湖泊中河蟹对沉水植物生长不构成显著影响的最大产量密度为29.25 kg hm~(-2)。7.不同水系河蟹在长江中游湖泊养成后于秋冬季捕捞期间成蟹日产量动态特点表明,盘锦苗种、天津苗种、长江苗种日产量高峰时间分别出现在9月上旬、9月中旬、10月上旬,瓯江苗种的高峰时间最早在10月19日,最晚出现在11月17日。苗种来源水系纬度(y)与成蟹日产量高峰出现时间(x:天,本研究设定8月28日为成蟹捕捞期的第1天)呈线性相关:y = 43.182 - 0.232 x (n = 13, r = -0.96)。8.沉水植物生物量(x, g m~(-2),7月份)与成蟹回捕率(y, %)的关系较为复杂,可用抛物线方程描述:y = -0.00001x~2 + 0.0297x + 2.5482 (r = 0.6899, n = 15)。通过分析文献数据,探讨了河蟹放流因子(放流密度和放流规格)与回捕因子(回捕率、群体增重倍数及单位产量)之间的统计关系。9.通过清除对沉水植物生长有破坏作用的草食性鱼类和杂食性鱼类,在低水位的春季选择无风浪的天气移栽沉水植物,于1994-1995年恢复了肖四海沉水植物群落,1995年秋季沉水植物覆盖率达70%。由于水草群落的恢复,肖四海结束了施肥投草主养四大家鱼的养殖方式,而采用以河蟹和鳜鱼为主要增养殖对象的优质高效渔业模式,1994-1997年河蟹产量分别达到1647、1100、838、4740kg,至1997年10月沉水植物生物量(鲜重)2730 g m~(-2),覆盖率达100%
Other AbstractThe biology and ecology of CHinese mitten crab, Ericheir sinensis, stocked in the macrophytic lakes along the middle reach of the Changjiang River were studied, including food habits, growth, characteristics of the precocious crabs, population dynamics, effects of fishes on survival of the early juvenile crabs, effects of stocking density and body size of the crab on the relative growth rate of submersed macrophytes, and carrying capacity of the crab. To establish the best model of the ecological management of the crab fishery, experimental and field studies were studied on the changes of daily catch of mature crabs, the capture rate of the crab, and the recovery of submersed macrophytes. The main results are as follows. 1. Gastric mills of 362 specimens of the 2-year-old Chinese mitten crab, which contained recognizable food items, in Lake Bao' an were examined. The results showed that the crab was omnivorous, feeding on benthic organisms. The food items (percent frequencies of occurrence) were macrophytes (87.3%), algae (82%), arthropods (48.2%), oligochaetes (28.2%), fishes (28.7%), protozoans (0.3%), rotifers (0.6%), gastropods (0.3%), and detritus (88.7%). The unidentified animal tissue was often observed, which had a frequency of occurrence of 46.1%. The ratio of cell numbers of macrophytes to algae was about 118-219:1. There was no significant difference in food habits between male and female (T-test, p > 0.05). 2. Field study on crab growth showed that the logistic equation could be used to depict the monthly growth of body weight (BW) of the 2-year-old crabs stocked in lakes, regardless of sexes and the seedling's resources. The data on specific growth rate of the crab showed that carapace width growth and BW growth were not synchronous in may months. 3. The survival rate of the early juvenile crabs in six cages with dense submersed macrophytes varied between 11.5-26.9% (average 19.2%) from June to October. The curve of survival rate was expressed as: Survival Rate = 1.016 - 0.422 log Days. For the larger crabs (2-year-old), mark-recapture method was efficient for the estimation of the population size. The changes of survival rate of the 2-year-old crab fitted well with an exponential equation: Survival Rate = 106.3exp (-0.007Days). 4. Gonosomatic index (GSI) of the precocious crabs reached peak in March of next year, being 12.32 ± 1.75% for females and 4.24 ± 0.06% for males. The sexual gland degraded quickly afterwards. In early July of next year, there were no complete eggs in the ovary. The survival curve was expressed as Y = 1.09exp (-0.018x) (Y: survival rate, x: days) from December to July. The precocious crabs failed to cast off their crusts, and died before mid-July. Thus, the precocious crabs were not suitable for aquaculture i macrophytic lakes. However, the precocious crabs should be harvested before April because some are of fishery value. 5. The effects of fishes (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, Channa argus, Cyprinus carpio) on the growth of the juvenile crab were not significant, but their effects on crab survival were negatively significant, Siniperca chuatsi exerted little effects on growth and survival of the crab. 6. To understand the carrying capacity of the crab in macrophytic lakes, experiments were conducted in net cages and tanks with the transplanted submersed macrophytes to study the effects of crab sizes and densities on the biomass of the plants. The carrying capacity is defined as maximal standing biomass of crabs when growth of macrophytes is not significantly affected. The estimated carrying capacity was 29.25 kg hm~(-2). 7. The changes in daily catch of Chinese mitten crab from different water systems, were studied during autumn-winter. Daily catch of crabs from the basins of the Liao River, Hai river, Changjiang River, and Oujiang River reached their peaks in early September, mid-September, early October, and mid-October -- mid-November, respectively. The relationship between the latitude (Y) of the water systems and the data (X: day, the first day was August 28) of peak catch during harvesting period was expressed as Y = 43.182 - 0.232X (n = 13, r = n-0.96). 8. The relation between submerged macrophyte biomass (X: g m~(-2), in July) and the capture rate of crabs (Y, %) was Y = -0.00001X~2 + 0.0297X + 2.5482 (r = 0.6899, n = 15). Based on the data from literatures, it was found that the capture rate of the crab was also affected by other factors such as stocking density and stocking size. 9. In Lake Xiaosihai (area is 133.3 hm~2) in 1995, herbivorous fishes and omnivorous fishes which were harmful to submerged macrophytes were removed, and aquatic plants were transplanted on calm days in early spring when the water depth was 0.1-1.0 m. Submerged macrophyte community was recovered successfully. Because of this, the fishermen ceased to apply the traditional fishery method in which fertilizer were used to culture planktivorous fishes with low market price, and began to use the new fishery method in which the crab and the mandarinfish were stocked. In the autumn of 1997, the biomass and cover rate of submerged macrophytes reached as high as 2730 g m~(-2) and 100%, respectively, and the total crab yield was as high as 4740 kg.
Pages189
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12568
Collection学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
金刚. 中华绒螯蟹渔业生物学及其湖泊渔业管理[D]. 中国科学院水生生物研究所. 中国科学院水生生物研究所,2001.
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