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题名: 自由生活异养鞭毛虫的生物学研究
作者: 赵玉凤
答辩日期: 2000
导师: 沈韫芬 ; 余育和
专业: 水生生物学
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
学位: 硕士
关键词: 东湖 ; 异养鞭毛虫 ; 物种多样性 ; 原位生长 ; 实验种群
摘要: 异养鞭毛虫因其丰富的物种多样性、在真核生物进化中的重要地位及在水生态系能量流动和物质循环过程中的重要功能作用,近年来成为国际上分类学和生态学研究的重要对象。本文以武昌东湖自由生活异养鞭毛虫为对象,就物种多样性、时空格局、原位生长及两优势种实验种群数量动态方面进行了研究。一、物种多样性1998年4月—2000年3月,用PFU法和载玻片法在东湖I、II、III三个实验站采样,三个站所处水体的营养水平分别是超富营养、富营养和中-富营养,其中II、III站为东湖生态实验站的常规采样站,I站设在东湖生态实验站趸船北侧。共发现异养鞭毛虫46种,其中有13个新记录种,分别是:Notosolenus apocamptus、Notosolenus ostium、Petalomonas minuta、Bodo curvifilus、Bodo designis、Dimastigella trypaniformis、Paraphysomonas vestita、Cladonema laxum、Salpingeoca amphoridium、Ancyromonas sigmoides、Allantion tachyploon、Heteromita globosa、Cercobodo grandis。所发现的46种异养鞭毛虫均有图像资料及文字描述。二、时空格局大多数生物类群的物种组成受制于时间与空间。异养鞭毛虫是一类微型生物,小生境的微小变化对它来说就是整个生境的变更。因此,以空问和时问为变量,归纳物种组成的规律。1、物种组成与空间的关系 春季发现的45种中,I、II、III站异养鞭毛虫数目分别为35、25、28种,占总数的百分比分别是:77.8%、55.6%、62.2%;夏季的25种中,I、II、III站异养鞭毛虫数目分别为23、21、15种,占总数的百分比分别是:92%、84%、60%;秋季的23种中,I、II、III站异养鞭毛虫数目分别为20、14、11种,占总数的百分比分别是:87%、56.5%、47.8%;冬季的37种中,I、II、III站异养鞭毛虫数目分别为28、15、17种,占总数的百分比分别是:75.7%、40.5%、45.9%。四个不同季节中,均是I站的物种数显著多于其它两站,而II、III站间却没有显著差异。I站位于超富营养水体,而其它两站水体营养水平均在此水平之下。这可能暗示在这两个营养水平间有一个影响异养鞭毛虫水平分布的氮磷域值。2、物种组成与时间的关系I、II、III三站春季物种数为45种,夏季为25种,秋季为23种,冬季为37种,呈显著的春冬两季高、夏秋两季低的单峰分布。这说明物种组成也是温度依赖性的。三、实验种群数量动态对东湖两优势异养性鞭毛虫Monas socialis(S.Kent)Lemm.和Bodo saltans Ehrenberg 1832(syn.Pleuromonas jaculans Perry 1852)实验种群的数量动态进行了比较研究。结果表明两实验种群的数量动态显著不同,Monas socialis呈逻辑斯谛增长;而Bodo saltans的增长曲线为抛物线。拟合组建了种群增长方程,并论证了方程可信度及其参数的生态学意义。四、原位生长1999年1月-2000年3月在前文所述的三个站点对东湖微型异养鞭毛虫(heterotrophic nanoflagellates,HNF)的生长进行了原位研究。1、东湖HNF生长率及其影响因子生长率变幅为-0.37—1.25/d。逐步回归分析表明:三个站HNF生长限制因子各有不同:I站HNF生长受细菌、超微型浮游植物丰度和总氮浓度交互作用的影响;II站HNF生长受超微型浮游植物丰度、水温和总氮浓度三因子交互作用的影响;III站HNF生长则受Chla浓度、水温和细菌丰度三因子交互作用的影响。而且,发现了一临界温度26℃,低于此值时,HNF的生长率伴随水温呈线性增长,而高于此值后,HNF的生长率伴随水温的升高而降低。 2、HNF现存量I、II、III站HNF的密度分别为2.92-11.5 * 10~4 ind./ml,2.25-8.31 * 1O~4 ind./ml,1.12-6.52 * 1O~4 ind./ml。可见HNF现存量随水体富营养化程度的加剧而增大。3、东湖HNF的生产量 I站为-2.25—9.335mg/l/d,平均值是5.545mg/l/d;II站为-0.557—5.852mg/l/d,平均值是2.166 mg/l/d;III站为-0.557—4.598mg/l/d,平均值是1.795 mg/l/d。三个站HNF的平均生产量为3.169mg/l/d,与浮游动物其它类群的历史资料比较表明,HNF对浮游动物生产量具有重大贡献。
英文摘要: Heterotrophic flagellate, being of great species diversity and of significance in eukaryote evolution and microbial food webs, has become a focus of taxonomic and ecological research. This paper presented the results on the species diversity, spatial and temporal variation and in situ growth of heterotrophic flagellates in Donghu Lake, and quantitative dynamics of two experimenal populations as well. Diversity of species Samples were studied between April, 1998 and March, 2000 from three stations of Donghu Lake, namely station I, II and III. The latter two are coincident with set stations of Donghu Experimental Station of Limnological Ecosystem and the former located the north of the Station Ship, hypereutrophic, eutrophic and meso-eutrophic, respectively. In all, 46 species were observed. Of them, 13 species are new records in China and they are: Notosolenus apocamptus、Notosolenus ostium、Petalomonas minuta、 Bodo curvifilus、Bodo designis、Dimastigella trypaniformis、Paraphysomonas vestita、Cladonema laxum、Salpingeoca amphoridium、Ancyromonas sigmoides、Allantion tachyploon、 Heteromita globosa、 Cercobodo grandis. All of 46 species well described and illustrated. Spatial and temporal pattern The species composition of most creatures is limited by spatial and temporal factors. Heterotrophic flagellates are mainly composed of nano- individuals, so that the change of microhabitat means the whole change of habitat. The species composition of heterotrophic flagellates is analyzed according to spatial and temporal variables. Relationship between species composition and spatial factors Among the 45 species recorded in spring, there are 35, 25, and 28 species in station I ,station II and station III separately, and the proportions are 77.8%, 55.6%, and 62.2% separately. Among the 25 species recorded in summer, there are 23, 21, and 15 species in station I, station II and station III separately, and the proportions are 92%, 84%, and 60% separately. Among the 23 species recorded in autumn, there are 20, 14, and 11 species in station I, station II and station III separately, and the proportions are 67%, 56.5%, and 47.8% separately. Among the 37 species recorded in spring, there are 28, 15, and 17 species in station I, station II and station III separately, and the proportions are 75.7%, 40.5%, and 45.9% separately. During all the four seasons, the species amount of station I was always much more than that of station II and station III, which meant that there may be a critical nitrogen and phosphate concentration that influences the distribution ofheterotrophic flagellates. Relationship between species composition and temporal factors There were 45 species of heterotrophic flagellates in spring , 25 species in summer, 23 species in autumn, and 37 species in winter. And it was significantly that the species amount in spring and winter was more than that in summer and autumn. So the species composition depended on water temperature. Quantitative dynamics of two experimental populations of heterotrophic flagellate The Quantitative dynamics of two experimental populations of heterotrophic flagellate, M. socialis and B. saltans which were separated from sample of Lake Donghu and cultured in Ceraphyl media of various concentration, was studied comparatively. The result showed that the quantitative dynamics of each heterotrophic flagellate population was different significantly from the other. The population growth curves of M. socialis coincided with the logistic curve, but the population growth curves of B. saltans were parabolic. The population growth equations for the two species were established. In situ growth The in situ study of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) in Donghu Lake were conducted at stations I, II and III between January 1999 and March 2000. HNF Growth rates in Donghu Lake: range and Limited factors HNF growth rates in Donghu Lake ranged from -0.37 to 1.25/d and were generally highest in spring. The growth of HNF at station I was limited by the intercept of total nitrogen concentration, bacterial and autotrophic picoplankton (APP) abundance. The growth of HNF at station II was limited by the intercept of water temperature, APP abundance and total nitrogen concentration. The growth of HNF at station III was limited by the intercept of water temperature, Chla concentration and bacterial abundance. What's more, there was a critical water temperature around 26 ℃, below which HNF growth showed a linear increase with water temperature, and above which HNF growth decreased. HNF standing stock HNF abundance at station I ,II and III were 2.92-11.5 * 10~4 ind./ml, 2.25-8.31 * 10~4 ind./ml, and 1.12-6.52 * 10~4 ind./ml separately. HNF production The production of HNF at station I ranged from -2.25 to 9.335 mg/l/d, and the mean was 5.545 mg/l/d. The production of HNF at station II ranged from -0.557 to 5.852 mg/l/d, and the mean was 2.166 mg/l/d. The production of HNF at station III ranged from -0.557 to 4.598 mg/l/d, and the mean was 1.795 mg/l/d. The average production of HNF at the three stations was 3.169mg/l/d. Compared to the production of other zooplanktons of Donghu Lake in the before, HNF contribute a substantial amount to total zooplankton production in Donghu Lake.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12562
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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自由生活异养鞭毛虫的生物学研究.赵玉凤[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2000.20-25
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