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中国(左鱼右丹)亚科鱼类的骨骼学及系统发育研究
王绪桢
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor何舜平
2000
Degree Grantor中国科学院水生生物研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院水生生物研究所
Degree Discipline水生生物学
Keyword(左鱼右丹)亚科 骨骼学 低等鲤科鱼类 支序系统学 系统发育 中国
Abstract对(左鱼右丹)亚科鱼类的分类学历史以及研究进展情况做简要的概述。在(左鱼右丹)亚科亚科阶元的命名上,曾经有过不同的名称,对这个问题的回顾也有助于理解(左鱼右丹)亚科的研究现状。对马口鱼的内部骨骼系统做了详细的解剖学描述,以便更好地进行系统发育关系分析。运用了支序系统学的原理及方法对(左鱼右丹)亚科鱼类系统发育关系进行了研究。为了确定性状进化极向并进一步探讨(左鱼右丹)亚科与其他鲤科鱼类的相互关系,选择鳅科中的条鳅亚科和鲤科中的雅罗鱼亚科、鮊亚科、鲴亚科、鮈亚科、亚科以及鲃亚科等7个亚科的9个代表种类用做外类群。通过24种计27尾透明骨骼标本的全面观察,共选择了68个骨骼学及外部解剖学性状进行描述和比较,构建了代系统发育分析的性状矩阵。对生成的性状矩阵应用PAUP计算机程序进行处理,以得到(左鱼右丹)亚科鱼类系统发育关系的最简约支序图。主要研究结论表述如下:1.围眶骨系发达,第5下眶骨和上眶骨相接,这属于原始的性状,但并不是(左鱼右丹)亚科中的共同性状。对现生鲤科鱼类围眶骨系特点的比较分析发现,从低等鲤科鱼到较特化的类群,围眶骨系存在着如下的变化趋势:除泪骨外,其余的各下眶均有所退化,甚至仅为包围下眶管的细第骨条;同时上眶骨和第5下眶骨逐渐相距较远而不再保持相接。由此可推测,这种超势可能反映了围眶骨系在鲤科鱼类进化过程中所表现出的进化极向。2.三叉颜面神经孔前孔位于前耳骨内属于(左鱼右丹)亚科中的普遍性状,在(左鱼右丹)亚科的绝大多数种类中均存在。然而由于这一性状的近祖特性,它对说明(左鱼右丹)亚科的单系性也没有太大的意义。3.(左鱼右丹)亚科不是一个单系群,系统发育关系的研究结果表明它可以分为以下几个类群:马口鱼类群,波鱼类群以及细鲫类群。这几个类群似乎各自形成单系群,而它们相互间却没有直接的亲缘关系。4.将异鲴置于(左鱼右丹)亚科仅依据的是它们在围眶骨系形态及排列上的相似性,研究中并没有发现可靠的离征表明它和(左鱼右丹)亚科鱼类紧密相关。相反地,它却因具备了鲴亚科鱼类的一些共同离征而更可能和鲴亚科鱼类构成姐妹群。5.同样地,也没有共同离征来证明离稀有鮈鲫和唐鱼是同其他(左鱼右丹)亚科鱼类密切相关的类群。在一些骨骼学性状上,它们因表现为离征而似乎较(左鱼右丹)亚科鱼类更为进化。
Other AbstractDanioninae, distributing widely throughout Southeast Asia, is a group of primitive minnows. Among danionine fishes in which the circumorbitals is well developed, the connection between the supraorbital and the fifth infraorbital is usually treated as a main character to identify them from other cyprinids. Of all danionine fishes, there are 14 genera containing 28 species in China. To contribute to a comprehensive knowledge of the study status in danioninae, the summary of taxonomic history and new advances in studies was of great necessity and was made at first. In addition, the osteological system of Opsariichthys bidens was described in detail. The cladistic methodology was employed in the phylogenetic analysis of danionine fishes. 9 representative genera from 1 cobitid subfamily and 6 cyprinid subfamilies were chosen as out-group to determine the evolutionary polarity of the characters and to discuss the correlation between danionine fishes and other cyprinids. Based on the observation of 27 specimens, selected to be cleared and stained from 24 species, a total of 68 variable osteological and external anatomical characters was described and compared. The cladgram was produced by using the computer-based program PAUP (Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony). The findings resulted from the phylogenetic analysis support the following hypotheses: 1. It is not necessarily the case in danioninae that the circumorbitals is well developed and the fifth infraorbital makes contact with the supraorbital. An overall study on circumorbitals of extant cyprinids is helpful to find the trend, showing the variation of circumorbitals from primitive cyprinid groups to more specialized ones, that all the large lamellar infraorbitals, apart from lachrymal, become reduced to some extent, even to slender ossifications around the sensory canal tube and that three is no contact between the fifth infraorbital and the supraorbital. This trend may be used to hypothesize the possible evolutionary polarity of circumorbitals during the evolution of cyprinid major groups. 2. It is in the majority of danionine fishes that the anterior trigemino-facial foramen is within prootic. This is a plesiomorphy in cyprinidae, and it is of little significance to define the monophyly of danioninae. 3. The subfamily Danioninae is not a monophyletic group, and the result of phylogenetic analysis indicate that in which several groups, such as Opsariichthys group, Rasbora group, Aphyocypr is group etc., seem to form monophyly respectively. But the phylogenetic relationship of these groups is not steadily to be understood and they apparently do not have direct relationships each other. 4. The classification of Aspidoparia in danioninae has been based upon the close similarity in morphology of circumorbitals which is a plesiomorphic character. In fact none of the apomorphies identified here show Aspidoparia and the other danionine fishes to be related closely. On the contrary, some synapomorphies maybe serve to identify Aspidoparia and Xenocyprinae fishes as sister taxa. 5. In the same way, no apomorphies can be identified here to relate Gobiocypr is and Tanichthys with the other danionine fishes. Furthermore, it seem that Gobiocypris and Tanichthys, for several apomophies identified in these two genera not occuring in the other danionine fishes, are more specialized than danioninae.
Pages103
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12554
Collection学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王绪桢. 中国(左鱼右丹)亚科鱼类的骨骼学及系统发育研究[D]. 中国科学院水生生物研究所. 中国科学院水生生物研究所,2000.
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