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题名: 湖泊大型水生植物空间格局分形与地统计学研究-以保安湖及邻近湖泊为例
作者: 潘文斌
答辩日期: 2000
导师: 刘建康 ; 蔡庆华
专业: 水生生物学
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 分形理论 ; 地统计学 ; 尺度 ; 自相似性 ; 保安湖 ; 大型水生植物 ; 构件格局 ; 个体格局 ; 种群格局 ; 群落格局 ; 生态系统服务功能 ; 湖群
摘要: 本工作主要运用分形几何学和地统计学研究大型水生植物不同层次(叶片、枝条、植株、种群、群落、湖湾、全湖、湖群以及区域)上的空间格局;同时结合景观生态学的部分理论对不同湖泊岸线的分形特征进行了探讨;最后对保安湖水生态系统服务功能经济价值进行了初步评估。上述研究可达到将不同尺度下的格局特征有机的联系起来的目的,并从得到的数据中提取尽可能多的信息和生态学意义,为大型水生植物资源的利用和保护提供理论依据。主要结果如下:一、优势大型水生植物构件和个体的空间格局1.叶的分维:马来眼子菜为1.441(1.322-1.520,sd = 0.0547);菹草为1.472(1.381-1.565,sd = 0.0489);大茨藻为1.325 (1.209-1.406,sd = 0.0470);轮叶黑藻为1.103 (1.001-1.217,sd = 0.0456);金鱼藻为1.442(1.221-1.542,sd = 0.0862)。按分维值排序,菹草>金鱼藻>马来眼子菜>茨藻>黑藻。叶片分维的大小,说明了不同种类水生植物叶片占据空间的程度和利用生态空间的能力的差异。2.枝条的分维:黑藻为1.359 (1.308-1.408,sd = 0.0409),金鱼藻1.631 (1.594-1.678,sd = 0.0359),大茨藻1.490 (1.464-1.535,sd = 0.0265)。按分维值排序,金鱼藻>茨藻>黑藻。枝条分维的大小,说明了不同种类水生植物枝条占据空间的程度和利用生态空间的能力的差异。3.植株的分维:苦草为1.360 (1.249-1.430,sd = 0.0619),金鱼藻1.339 (1.185-1.491,sd = 0.1009),狐尾藻1.290(1.175-1.396,sd = 0.0757)。按分维值排序,苦草>金鱼藻>狐尾藻。植株分维的大小,反映出不同种类水生植物个体占据空间的程度和利用生态空间的能力的差异。二、莲群丛内个体分布格局莲群丛中的莲在八月份处于其生长的旺季。莲种群对群丛水平空间的占有程度高(计盒维数1.92,信息维数1.88)。从相关系数r = -0.99915来看,各尺度下莲的叶、花和果的分布格局具有显著的自相似性。菱的计盒维数只有1.04,信息维数稍高,为1.11,对群丛水平空间的占有程度低。三、湖湾大型水生植物群落中各优势种的空间格局1. 在纵向样带上的O-980m尺度上,各变量除狐尾藻和黑藻外,均具有一定的相目关性。其中,O-400m的尺度上,各变量与h值均具有较好的线性关系;而 400-980m的尺度上,各自的相关系数有增有减,表明各变量在这个尺度上的格局有所分化。菱的转折点在460m左右,而荇菜的转折点在300m左右。在横向样带的O-660m的尺度上,金鱼藻、狐尾藻、荇菜和整个群落的线性 拟合较好。在O-400m的尺度下也有同样的现象。但在380-660m的尺度下,金鱼藻、黄丝草和荇菜线性拟合较好,狐尾藻和群落的相关系数下降。黄丝草的转折点在220m左右,而整个群落的转折点在520m左右。2. 样带调查中发现各种水生植物和整个群落分维值都大于1.5而小于2.0,说明各物种和整个群落在不同尺度下存在空间异质性,但异质性程度不高。从群落的分维值来看,纵向调查的群落空间异质性强于横向调查的群落异质性,这与环境的异质性在这两个方向上的差异有关:沿着河流上溯造成的环境异质性要比主体湖更趋复杂。虽然在两个方向上群落空间异质性的最小尺度不同,但异质程度均较低。由于大型水生植物群落具有相对较为同质的格局,故在调查保安湖沉水植物群落时,尺度应定为520m,而单一种群的调查最大取380m。3.样方调查中发现,在沿岸带群落中,苦草和狐尾藻的空间结构比率较高,表明在小尺度上(小于5m)苦草和狐尾藻的变化较小,其各向同性模型是指数-模型,反映出苦草和狐尾藻是聚集性分布的;它们的变程分别是48.6m和34.2m,即苦草和狐尾藻在上述尺度下具有空间自相关性,彼此相互作用。超 过上述尺度以后,它们的空间自相关性差,没有相互作用。金鱼藻和整个群落客的各向同性模型为线性,它们的空间结构比率很低,表明在小尺度上它们的变化较大,其分布为中等程度的聚集分布。4. 沿岸带群落中的苦草在全方向上的均质程度高,即在不同方向上的分布格局没有明显差异,但NE-SW方向上的回归系数最高,可认为其分布以NE-SW为优势方向。而狐尾藻和金鱼藻的分布和苦草类似,只是分布格局中以N-S 为优势方向。整个群落在整合上述各个组分格局的基础上,加上还有其他的水草存在,其格局中优势方向为NW-SE。四、全湖水生植被空间格局及其动态和年间差异1.1996年不同月份各断面调查的结果表明:保安湖水生植物的种类不多;挺水植物的分布面积不大;沉水植物的主要种类为黄丝草、狐尾藻、金鱼藻、苦草。黄丝草相对生物量占绝对优势(70.18%),苦草、金鱼藻和狐尾藻分别占6.012%、12.18%和10.93%。与1996年相比,1992年黄丝草相对生物量虽然也占绝对优势,但没有1996年那么高,为58.47%,而苦草、金鱼藻和狐尾藻分别占11.912%、8.714%和14.506%。2.从1992和1996两年6-10月间黄丝草不同生物量格局的分维变化可以看出:1992年6月保安湖黄丝草的生长没有1996年6月好,分布也没有后者广;7月,1992年黄丝草的生长明显好于1996年:1992年7000g/m~2以上的生物量分布格局对应的分维较高,表明黄丝草高生物量得到较好的维持,但在5000g/m~2以下的生物量格局方面,1996年的分布范围明显要高于1992年,其对应的各个分维均高于1992年;但在此后的8、9月里,这两年分维值的变化趋于一致,差异不大;10月,1992年黄丝草的整体分布区域明显要广于1996年,高生物量分布的区域也很广。从1992年各月分维的变化可以看出,随着时间的变化,黄丝草低生物量在全湖的面积比较稳定,高生物量的分布区域不断拓展;而1996年的分维则表明整个黄丝草分布区域在不断缩小,这和1992年形成鲜明对比。3.1992和1996两年6-10月间总水草不同生物量格局的分维变化与黄丝草基本类似。五、不同湖泊大型水生植物生物量与岸线分形特征的关系1.研究涉及的31个湖泊岸线发育系数平均为4.50 (sd = 2.088),最大为11.33(上津湖),最小为1.68(王母湖)。计盒维数的平均值为1.219 (sd = 0.078),最大为1.419 (上津湖),最小为1.096(大长湖)。不同湖泊的岸线发育系数虽有较大变化,但其计盒维数的变动较小。2.利用周长-面积关系公式及其变形,得到上述31个湖泊整体岸线形状的分维分别为1.3998和1.6956。与前面的计盒维数平均值1.219相比较,可以看出前者与之更加接近。公式计算时得到的R~2均大于0.80,说明得到的两个公式的线性关系是比较显著的,表明这些湖泊的岸线具有自相似性。3.根据Korcak法则,结合湖北省湖泊的面积分布数据,得到1980年代湖北省湖泊岸线分维是1.52。上述结果表明全省湖泊岸线具有自相似性,且较为曲折。4.湖北省境内长江以南部分湖泊大型水生植物生物量,与四项形态指标(岸线发育系数SDI、岸线分维SFD、面积A、周长P)的逐步回归方程为:Biomass = 45625.O + 2746.0·SDI - 46277.2·SFD (R~2 = 0.6024)。说明,岸线发育系数和岸线分维都是影响生物量的因子,但是岸线发育系数更加显著。鉴于生态系统的服务功能价值及其评估已经成为生态系统研究的一个新的热点,而国内对于湖泊生态系统的服务功能的评价和间接价值的估算还未见报道,因此本文最后尝试用生态系统生态学知识与生态经济学方法研究了保安湖生态系统部分生态服务功能。结果表明,1992年,保安湖生态系统有机质生产间接价值为1514.93万元,固定CO_2的间接经济价值为4772.99万元,释放O_2的间接经济价值为3626.53万元,主要初级生产者储存N、P的间接价值为44.48万元(年吸收量的间接价值为1507.99万元),调蓄和供水间接价值为22982.34万元,湖水SO_2承载量间接价值为51.5049万元,合计为32992.77万元。从上面的不完全估计中可以看出,生态系统具有巨大的生态经济效益。
英文摘要: The spatial patterns of macrophytes on different levels were studied by using Fractal Geometry and Geostatistics. Those levels included leave, branch, individual, population, community, a bay, the whole lake (the Baoan Lake), lake districts, and region. The fractal character of different lakes' shorelines was studied on certain principles of Landscape Ecology. A primary estimate on the services value of the Baoan Lake ecosystem was made. The research dealt with spatial patterns of macrophytes at different scales, which enables the maximum extraction of ecological information, and provides theoretical foundation for the optimal utilization and protection of macrophytes resources. The main results of are listed as follows: 1.The spatial pattern of module and individual of dominant macrophytes 1.1 The fractal dimension (FD) of Potamogeton malaianus leaves was between 1.322 and 1.520, with an average of 1.441, and a standard deviation of 0.0547. The FD of Potamogeton crispus leaves was between 1.381 and 1.565, with an average of 1.472, and a standard deviation of 0.0489. The FD of Najas marina leaves was between 1.209 and 1.406, with an average of 1.325, and a standard deviation of 0.0547. The FD of Hydrilla verticillata leaves was between 1.001 and 1.217, with an average of 1.103, and a standard deviation of 0.0456. The FD of Ceratophyllum oryzetorum leaves was between 1.221 and 1.542, with an average of 1.442, and a standard deviation of 0.0862. The sequence of average FD of leaves was: Potamogeton crispus > Ceratophyllum oryzetorum > Potamogeton malaianus> Najas marina> Hydrilla verticillata, which indicated the difference in the ability of spatial occupying and utilizing among different species' leaves. 1.2 The FD of Hydrilla verticillata branches was between 1.308 and 1.408, with an average of 1.359, and a standard deviation of 0.0409. The FD of Ceratophyllum oryzetorum branches was between 1.594 and 1.678, with an average of 1.631, and a standard deviation of 0.0359. The FD of Najas marina branches was between 1.464 and 1.535, with an average of 1.490, and a standard deviation of 0.0265. The sequence of average FD of branches was: Ceratophyllum oryzetorum> Najas marina> Hydrilla verticillata, which indicated the difference in the ability of spatial occupying and utilizing among different species' branches. 1.3 The FD of Vallisneria spiralis individual pattern was between 1.249 and 1.430, with an average of 0.0619, and a standard deviation of 0.0619. The FD of Ceratophyllum oryzetorum individual pattern was between 1.185 and 1.491, with an average of 1.339, and a standard deviation of 0.1009. The FD of Myriophyllum spicatum individual pattern was between 1.175 and 1.396, with an average of 1.290, and a standard deviation of 0.0757. The sequence of average FD of branches was: Vallisneria spiraIis>Ceratophyllum oryzetorum> Myriophyllum spicatum, which indicated the difference in the ability of spatial occupying and utilizing among different species' individuals. 2.The fractal character of horizontal pattern of Nelumbo nucifera Association The fractal character of horizontal pattern of Nelumbo nucifera Association showed the difference between two macrophytes' distribution in the association. Nelumbo nucifera was the dominant species in August. The box-counting dimension (BD) of distribution of Nelumbo nucifera was 1.92, with an information dimension (ID) of 1.88; the BD of distribution of Trapa insica was 1.04, and an D of 1.11. This result showed that Nelumbo nucifera uniformly distributed at the given scales from 0.5 to 8 m. The variety of Nelumbo nucifera's FD in the sequent samples was discussed. 3.The macrophytes community pattern in a bay (Huangfengkou region) of the Baoan Lake 3.1 The semivariogram of the variables on lengthwise transect showed that: from 0 to 980 m, most variables demonstrated a significant correlation, with the exception of Myriophyllum spicatum and Hydrilla verticillata. From 0 to 400 m, every variable had a fine linear relationship with separation distance. From 400 to 980 m, the correlation coefficient of some variable increased, and others decreased, which implied that there existed a divergence in these variables at this scale. The turning points of Nymphoides peltata and Trapa bispinosa semivariogram were distinct, the distance of turning points occurring at 300 and 460 m respectively. The semivariogram of the variabls on transverse transect showed that: from 0 to 660 m, Ceratophyllum oryzetorum, Myriophyllum spicatum, Nymphoides peltata and the community as a whole had a fine linear fit. From 380 to 660 m, Ceratophyllum oryzetorum, Potamogeton maackianus and Nymphoides peltata had a fine linear fit, while Myriophyllum spicatum and the community as a whole demonstrated a decreased correlation coefficiem. Potamogeton maackianus had a turning point at 220 m, and the community had a turning point around 520 m. 3.2 The transect investigation revealed that: every macrophyte species and the whole macrophyte community had a fractal dimension between 1.5 and 2, which indicated that certain spatial heterogeneity existed at different scales. By comparison of the two transects' fractal dimension, spatial heterogeneity of the lengthwise transect was higher than transverse transect, implying that certain environmental heterogeneity existed in the two transects. The transect investigation also indicated that when we carried out an submersed macrophyte commtmity investigation in the Baoan Lake, the scale 520 m should be adopted, while 380 m should be considered as a single species investigation scale.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12548
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
湖泊大型水生植物空间格局分形与地统计学研究-以保安湖及邻近湖泊为例.潘文斌[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2000.20-25
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