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四大家鱼仔幼鱼耳石微结构的特征及其应用研究
宋昭彬
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor曹文宣
2000
Degree Grantor中国科学院水生生物研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院水生生物研究所
Degree Discipline水生生物学
Keyword耳石 日轮 微结构 应用 草鱼 青鱼 长江
Abstract草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)、青鱼(Mylopharyngodon piceus)、鲢(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)和鳙(Aristichthys nobilis)四大家鱼是我国著名的传统养殖对象,对其生物学、生理、生化、遗传、养殖等领域具有众多研究,但有关其耳石微结构特征的研究仅有极少的报道。本文以1998年5-6月采自长江九江江段,1999年5-6月采自长江纱帽和石码头江段的天然仔鱼,1998年和1999年的6-9月分别采自长江新滩口江段、石码头江段、五湖、洪湖和洞庭湖的天然幼鱼为材料,同时以1999年5-6月采自洪湖市柏枝渔场和华中农业大学鱼种站的人工繁殖仔鱼及1999年10月采自华中农业大学鱼种站的人工养殖幼鱼为对照材料,研究了仔、幼鱼的耳石微结构特征,并将其应用到天然仔、幼鱼的日龄鉴定,孵化期推算,体长、体重生长研究以及早期营养水平评价等工作中。主要结果如下:1.仔鱼的耳石上可观察到原基、中心核和生长轮等。耳石原基和中心核一般为1个,圆形或卵圆形,极少数耳石具有双原基、三原基或双中心核。一些天然和人工饲养仔鱼的耳石上均出现了初次摄食标记轮,正常摄食的草鱼仔鱼的耳石上还出现了可能与卵黄完全吸收相关的外标记轮。天然仔鱼在从野外转入实验室饲养的过程中,耳石上出现了转移标记轮。天然仔鱼的生长轮清晰度很差。草鱼仔鱼中,可清晰分辨生长轮的矢耳石占10%以下,微耳石占26%以下;鲢仔鱼中,矢耳石占33%以下,微耳石占40%以下;青鱼仔鱼中,矢耳石占22%以下,微耳石占34%以下。人工饲养仔鱼的生长轮清晰度高。草鱼仔鱼中,可清晰分辨生长轮的矢耳石占95%,微耳石占88%;鲢仔鱼中,矢耳石占45%,微耳石占90%。天然仔鱼经实验室饲养一段时间后取耳石检测发现,转移标记轮以内的生长轮清晰度差,其外的生长轮清晰度高。实验室饲养条件下,草鱼和鲢饥饿仔鱼的耳石上仍沉积了清晰的生长轮。长江中水温的昼夜波动幅度很小,而饲养条件下水温昼夜波动幅度较大,这是引起天然和饲养仔鱼耳石生长轮清晰度截然不同的主要原因。2.根据耳石透明性的差异,可将草鱼幼鱼的微耳石划分为中央暗区和外部亮区两个部分。人工养殖个体的暗区生长轮数和大小均大于天然个体,暗区和亮区的特征比较稳定,生长轮清晰,对比度好,宽度比较均匀;天然个体的暗区和亮区表现形式多变,暗区的生长轮清晰或不清晰,亮区的生长轮清晰,但宽度波动较大。3.天然草鱼仔鱼微耳石的生长轮宽度变幅为1.19-6.52 1μm,矢耳石为2.21-7.48怔;鲢仔鱼微耳石为0.9-6.10um,矢耳石为1.40-7.09μm;青鱼仔鱼微耳石为1.35-7.24μm,矢耳石为1.95-5.74μm;鳙仔鱼微耳石为0.94-3.12μm,矢耳石为1.29-6.86μm。仔鱼耳石生长轮的宽度一般比较稳定,但越早沉积的生长轮,其宽度的频率分布峰值越集中,对应的生长轮宽度较大,越晚沉积的生长轮,峰值越分散,且往往表现为两个高峰,一个高峰对应的值较大,另一个高峰对应的值较小。仔鱼的耳石半径与其日龄间呈显著的线性关系。4.仔鱼的体长与耳石直径呈线性相关。幼鱼的体长与微耳石长呈线性关系。幼鱼的体重与微耳石长呈幂函数关系。5.采自九江、石码头和纱帽江段的草鱼仔鱼的日龄分别为8-16d、6-16d和4-9d,采自九江和石码头江段的鲢仔鱼的日龄分别为7-26d和7-15d,采自九江、石码头和纱帽江段的青鱼仔鱼的日龄分别为11-23d、6-20d和7-9d,采自九江江段的鳙仔鱼的日龄为10-23d。1 999年7月13-14日和8月5日采自新滩口江段,7月6-8日采自石码头江段,6月30日和8月5日采自五湖的草鱼幼鱼的日龄分别为27.5-70.5d、82.5-109d、36.7-69d、37-59d和73.3-104d。1999年6月30日、7月14日和8月5日采自新滩口江段、1999年8月5日采自五湖的鲢幼鱼的日龄分别为38-45.5d、50-84d、72.5-108d和80.3-85.5d。1999年5-6月从石码头江段采集的5次鱼苗可能来自四次江汛,分别发生在4月下旬到5月初、5月中旬、5月下旬和6月初。其中,5月7日和5月16日采集的仔鱼来自同一次江讯。根据日龄的推算,九江仔鱼可能来自武汉以上江段的家鱼产卵场,纱帽和石码头的仔鱼可能来自上游峡区的产卵场。6.家鱼仔、幼鱼的体长和体重生长符合线性模型或指数模型,指数模型的符合程度优于线性模型。采自石码头江段的草鱼仔鱼的体长平均生长率和特定生长率分别为0.11mm/d和0.0132;采自新滩口江段、石码头江段和五湖的草鱼幼鱼的体长和体重平均生长率分别为2.085mm/d和1.247g/d,特定生长率分别为0.0248和0.0769。采自九江和石码头江段的鲢仔鱼的体长平均生长率分别为0.119mm/d和0.0784mm/d,特定生长率分别为0.0145和0.0124;采自新滩口江段的鲢幼鱼的体长和体重平均生长率分别为1.016mm/d和0.5047g/d,特定生长率分别为0.0115和0.0361。采自纱帽和石码头江段的青鱼仔鱼的体长平均生长率为0.124mm/d,特定生长率为0.0133。7.家鱼天然仔鱼中存在均匀、消瘦和很消瘦三种体型。天然仔鱼的空肠率较高,草鱼为45.16-72.13%,鲢为30-40.91%,青鱼为31.25-67.65%,鳙为87.50%。依据肝胰脏和肠的组织学特征,可以将天然仔鱼的营养水平分为很好、一般和饥饿三种。1998年采自九江江段的仔鱼中,有相当部分的个体遭受了饥饿,其中,草鱼为40%,鲢为48.15%,青鱼为46.15%,鳙为60%。8.以草鱼耳石为测试材料设计的图像分析系统能自动统计耳石上的生长轮数,测定生长轮宽度,累加耳石半径,以及计算耳石等不规则形状的面积。该系统的测量精确度比在显微镜下用目测微尺测量高10倍以上,而准确度和后者无差别。本文通过对家鱼仔、幼鱼的耳石微结构检测表明,依据耳石微结构特征,可以识别天然和人工繁殖的仔、幼鱼。通过对耳石-鱼体大小关系、生长模型以及仔鱼的形态学和组织学的研究表明,天然条件下,仔、幼鱼的不同个体间的生长有很大差异,相当一部分个体可能长时间处于营养缺乏状态,这可能是引起早期鱼苗大量死亡的主要原因之一,进而导致了天然资源量的不断下降。因此,要加强家鱼天然资源的保护和恢复工作。
Other AbstractThe four domestic fishes, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), and bighead (Aristichthys nobilis) are the famous cultivated species in China. Many studies on these fishes were carried out in the fields of biology, physiology, biochemistry, genetics, aquaculture, and et al. However the studies on otolith microstructure in the four domestic fishes were reported just in few texts. In this dissertation, the otolith icrostructure was examined and analyzed to determine the ages and hatch dates of larval and juvenile four domestic fishes, estimate the spawning periods and locate the spawning sites of matured females. The growth of body length and weight were studied in larvae and juveniles and the nutritional level was evaluated in wild larvae. The wild larvae used in the study were collected from Jiujiang section of the Yangtze River in May-June 1998, from Shamao and Shimatou sections in May-June 1999. The wild juveniles were collected from Xintankou and Shimatou sections, Wuhu Lake, Honghu Lake, and Dongting Lake in June-September 1998 and 1999. The artificially propagated larvae were got from Baizhi hatchery in Honghu City and Huanzhong Agriculture University hatchery in May-June 1999. The reared juveniles were got from Huanzhong Agriculture University hatchery in October 1999. The primary results are as follows: 1. The primordium, nucleus and increments were observed on larval otolith. The primordium and nucleus were round or oval in shape. The number of primordium and nucleus on otoliths was only one except few abnormal otoliths with two primordiums, three primordiums or two nuclei. In some wild and reared larvae, the first feeding check was identified on sagitta and lapillus. A check potentially associated with exhaustion of the yolk sac was identified on the otoliths of some fed grass carp larvae. A transition check deposited on otoliths of the wild larvae during being carried from the Yangtze River to laboratory. The increment clarity of otolith in wild larvae differed from that of reared larvae. Increments on otoliths of the former were hardly examined or just subtile. The percentages of sagitta and lapillus with clear increments were respectively less than 10% and 26% in larval grass carp, less than 33% and 40% in larval silver carp, and less than 22% and 34% in larval black carp. Increments on otoliths of the reared larvae were relatively clear, clear and fairly clear. The percentages of these three type sagitta and lapillus were respectively 95% and 88% in larval grass carp, and 45% and 90% in larval silver carp. Inside the transition check of otoliths in the wild larvae after reared in laboratory for a period of time, the increment clarity was very poor, while outside excellent. The increments deposited on the otoliths of reared larvae of grass carp and silver carp were also clear during starvation. The differences in increment clarity between wild and reared larvae were probably related to the differences of dieI water-temperature fluctuations, which were very low in wild, while relatively high in reared conditions. 2. The tapillus of juvenile grass carp could be divided into inner optically dense and outer low optically dense areas based on the difference of transparence. The size and increment numbers of optically dense area in reared individuals were bigger than that in wild individuals. Increments on optically dense or relatively low optically dense areas were both clear and regular in reared individuals. Increments were clear or unclear on optical dense area, while clear, but with irregular width on low optical density area in wild individuals. The otolith opacity and transparence were probably controlled by average water temperature in the growth of juveniles. The irregular width of increments in wild individuals was probably induced by the fluctuations of food supply in nature. 3. Increment width was measured in wild larvae. The lapillus and sagitta increment width were 1.19-6.52μm and 2.21-7.48μm in grass carp, 0.99-6.10μm and 1.40-7.09μm in silver carp, 1.35-7.24μm and 1.95-5.74μm in black carp, and 0.94-3.12μm and 1.29-6.86μm in bighead respectively. The width of increments deposited at different date had no significant difference each other, while the peaks of frequency distribution of increment width varied with the age of larvae. The distribution peaks of width of increments deposited early were more converged, and corresponded to wider increments. The distribution of width of increments deposited lately usually had two peaks, one corresponded to wider increments, the other to narrower increments. Relationship between otolith radius and age of larvae was significantly linear. The slopes of the regression differed among samples collected on different date, which showed that the otolith growth rate differed among them.
Pages179
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12546
Collection学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
宋昭彬. 四大家鱼仔幼鱼耳石微结构的特征及其应用研究[D]. 中国科学院水生生物研究所. 中国科学院水生生物研究所,2000.
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