The present dissertation summarized comprehensively the results of studies on systematics, karyotype, biology and biogeography of the schizothoracine fishes. A review was given for different division schemes base on the analyses of the main morphological characters and their variations in the fishes of subfamily Schizothoracinae, and especially the distribution of the characters in Schizothorax species. The viewpoint of Chen and Cao (2000), which distinguished the schizothoracine fishes into 12 genera, was confirmed according to the results of the character analyses and the phylogeny of the subfamily. The relationships of all 12 genera of the subfamily were studied in detail by using the method of cladistics. By using the method of electrophoresis, three isozymes, lactate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and eslate isozymes, of three Gyrnnocypris species in north Tibetan Plateau were described and discussed. The electrophoretic patterns of all three enzymes showed tissue-specific distributions and were different among populations. Compared with the other tetraploid fishes, these species retained more functional duplicate genes and null allale. It was suggested that Gyrnnocypris fishes are still at the first stage of evolution after polyploidization, and which is earlier than that of catostomid fishes. The distribution patterns of all 12 genera have been generalized into 4 types, incomplete, symmetric, laciness and spot distribution. After integrating with the phylogenetic result of the subfamily and with the paleonto-logical and geological material of the plateau, the author deduced that the Huanghe River (Yellow R.) was the last one which traced to its source to the Plateau among all outflow rivers in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. As the fishing catch of the Selincuo Lake accounts to 60 per cent of the total yield in Tibet and there is no biological information of fishes distributed over 4000 ma. s. I. in the world so far, the present dissertation gives an overall and in depth studies of the histology of gonad development, development of pharyngeal teeth, feeding, annuli characters, age and growth, reproductive strategy and fishery of Gymnocypris selincuoensis, an endemic and the only fish in the Selincuo Lake, and on preembryonic development and sperm longevity of G. namensis endemic to the'Namucuo Lake. Both lakes are located in the northern Tibetan Plateau at an average elevations above 4500 m. Based on the biological studies of G. selincuoensis, 8 specific strategies for sustainable utilization of fishery of Selincuo Lake were put forward from a sustainable development point of view. After the hydrographic features of lakes and the biological characters of fishes in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau were analysed and compared, the strategies of the sustainable development of fishery in the whole Tibetan Plateau has been discussed.