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题名: 裂腹鱼类的系统进化及资源生物学
作者: 陈毅峰
答辩日期: 2000
导师: 陈宜瑜
专业: 水生生物学
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 裂腹鱼类 ; 系统进化 ; 分布格局 ; 生物学 ; 资源 ; 可持续利用 ; 色林错 ; 青藏高原
摘要: 本文全面总结了裂腹鱼类的系统学、细胞学、生物学以及生物地理学等方面的研究情况。通过对裂腹鱼类主要分类性状的阐述,分析了有关裂腹鱼类分类中的不同观点;并依据特征分析和系统发育的研究结果,重申了应当将裂腹鱼亚科划分成12个属的观点。运用分支系统学的原理和方法阐述了裂腹鱼亚科各属之间的系统发育关系;同时将裂腹鱼类1 2个属的分布格局归纳为缺损、对称、带状和点状4种形式,并就其缺失类元与特有现象进行了分析。在对藏北3种裸鲤的乳酸脱氢酶、苹果酸脱氢酶和脂酶进行电泳分析的基础上,探讨了它们的物种分化问题。色林错位于藏北羌唐高原的东南部,湖泊面积1640 km~2,海拔4530m。色林错裸鲤是该湖中惟一的一种鱼类,其产量占整个西藏自治区渔产量的60%。通过两年的野外工作,本文对色林错裸鲤的资源生物学进行了系统的研究,内容涵盖了组织学、胚胎发育、精子寿命、咽齿发生、摄食、年轮特征、年龄、生长、繁殖对策、渔业利用等各个方面;并就其生态适应性的一些问题进行了讨论。进而从可持续发展的角度提出了色林错鱼类资源可持续利用的8条具体措施;结合高原湖泊的水文特征以及高原鱼类生物学特点的分析,还进一步对青藏高原湖泊资源可持续发展问题进行了探讨。
英文摘要: The present dissertation summarized comprehensively the results of studies on systematics, karyotype, biology and biogeography of the schizothoracine fishes. A review was given for different division schemes base on the analyses of the main morphological characters and their variations in the fishes of subfamily Schizothoracinae, and especially the distribution of the characters in Schizothorax species. The viewpoint of Chen and Cao (2000), which distinguished the schizothoracine fishes into 12 genera, was confirmed according to the results of the character analyses and the phylogeny of the subfamily. The relationships of all 12 genera of the subfamily were studied in detail by using the method of cladistics. By using the method of electrophoresis, three isozymes, lactate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and eslate isozymes, of three Gyrnnocypris species in north Tibetan Plateau were described and discussed. The electrophoretic patterns of all three enzymes showed tissue-specific distributions and were different among populations. Compared with the other tetraploid fishes, these species retained more functional duplicate genes and null allale. It was suggested that Gyrnnocypris fishes are still at the first stage of evolution after polyploidization, and which is earlier than that of catostomid fishes. The distribution patterns of all 12 genera have been generalized into 4 types, incomplete, symmetric, laciness and spot distribution. After integrating with the phylogenetic result of the subfamily and with the paleonto-logical and geological material of the plateau, the author deduced that the Huanghe River (Yellow R.) was the last one which traced to its source to the Plateau among all outflow rivers in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. As the fishing catch of the Selincuo Lake accounts to 60 per cent of the total yield in Tibet and there is no biological information of fishes distributed over 4000 ma. s. I. in the world so far, the present dissertation gives an overall and in depth studies of the histology of gonad development, development of pharyngeal teeth, feeding, annuli characters, age and growth, reproductive strategy and fishery of Gymnocypris selincuoensis, an endemic and the only fish in the Selincuo Lake, and on preembryonic development and sperm longevity of G. namensis endemic to the'Namucuo Lake. Both lakes are located in the northern Tibetan Plateau at an average elevations above 4500 m. Based on the biological studies of G. selincuoensis, 8 specific strategies for sustainable utilization of fishery of Selincuo Lake were put forward from a sustainable development point of view. After the hydrographic features of lakes and the biological characters of fishes in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau were analysed and compared, the strategies of the sustainable development of fishery in the whole Tibetan Plateau has been discussed.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12540
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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裂腹鱼类的系统进化及资源生物学.陈毅峰[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2000.20-25
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