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题名: 发状念珠藻和铜绿微囊藻的光合作用研究
作者: 邱保胜
答辩日期: 2000
导师: 高坤山 ; 刘永定
专业: 水生生物学
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 蓝藻 ; 发状念珠藻 ; 铜绿微囊藻 ; 生理生态 ; 光合作用 ; 环境因子 ; CO_2升高
摘要: 发状念珠藻(Nostoc flagelliforme(Berk.& Curtis)Bornet&Flah.)是重要的陆生经济蓝藻,而铜绿微囊藻(Microcystis aeruginosa Kutz.)是危害最大的蓝藻水华种类。本文在综述了蓝藻无机碳利用机制、大气CO_2浓度升高对植物的生理生态学效应、发状念珠藻和水华蓝藻研究进展的基础上,在以下两个方面展开了研究:1)发状念珠藻由干→吸水变湿→再变干的过程中其光合作用与环境因子的关系及其特征;2)铜绿微囊藻对CO_2浓度升高的响应。主要结果如下:风干状态的发状念珠藻,在吸水变湿的过程中其光合活性得以恢复,实验证明此过程对光有依赖性,并需要外源K_o~+ Fe~(3+)、Mg~(2+)、Na~+、NO_3~-、PO_4~(3-)、Cl~-和微量元素对光合作用恢复无显著影响,与K~+共存对光合活性也无进一步促进效果。藻体钾的含量与其光合活性有密切关系。吸水后的发状念珠藻,在因干燥失水而变干的过程中,其光合作用初期随失水量的增加而升高,在失水约30%时达到最大,后期随进一步干燥失水逐渐降低;呼吸作用随干燥程度的增加一直降低。光合效率在藻体完全吸水时最大,随着失水量的增加明显降低;干燥失水显著影响了光合作用对光的需求,而对光补偿点影响不显著。处于由湿变干过程中的发状念珠藻,其光合作用在提高CO_2浓度的条件下得到明显促进,适温范围变窄,对光的利用效率增大,CO_2表观亲和力下降,暗呼吸作用降低。在此过程中,检测不到光呼吸作用。此外,发状念珠藻的日光合作用生产在高CO_2、高光照及每日两次给水条件下最大。气相CO_2浓度加倍促进了铜绿微囊藻生长,使对数期末和稳定期的生长增加52-77%。CO_2浓度倍增条件下,藻细胞中各种色素的相对比例不受影响,但每个细胞中叶绿素a含量下降;随着培养液中DIC浓度的增加,以单位叶绿素a表示的暗呼吸速率及光合效率升高,而以单位细胞数表示的光饱和光合速率及光合作用饱和光强降低。铜绿微囊藻光合作用对DIC具有较高的亲和力,CO_2浓度倍增对最大光合速率及其对DIC的表观亲和力无显著影响。 陆生的发状念珠藻与水生的铜绿微囊藻相比,光合作用特征有明显差异,如前者的光合作用较易受大气CO_2浓度升高的影响,对光照和温度的适应性也有明显不同,这在表示种属间差异的同时,也显示了两种蓝藻对陆生与水生环境的适应性。
英文摘要: Nostoc flagelliforme (Berk. & Curtis) Bomet & Flab. is an edible terrestrial cyanobacterium and Microcystis aeruginosa Kutz. is one species responsible for harmful freshwater blooms. On the basis of reviewing previous researches on inorganic carbon utilization of cyanobacteria, plants and increasing atmospheric CO_2, biology of N. flagelliforme and freshwater blooms, the photosynthetic responses of N. flagelliforme to environmental factors during the cycle of dry→wet→dry, and the responses of M. aeruginosa to elevated CO, were investigated in this paper. Main results were as follows:Photosynthetic recovery in dried field populations ofN. flagelliforme during rehydration was a light-dependent process. Addition of K~+ resulted in significant enhancements of P_n and PSII photochemical efficiency, but other nutrients (Fe~(3+), Mg~(2+), Na~+, PO_4~(3-), NO_3~-, Cl~-) and trace metals (A_5) showed little effect. Potassium content in N. flagelliforme affected the extent of photosynthetic recovery. Once it had absorbed sufficient potassium, N. flagelliforme no longer required exogenous addition for the photosynthetic recovery. Net photosynthesis increased to reach a maximum at about 30% water loss, then decreased, while dark respiration always decreased with the progress of desiccation. Photosynthetic efficiency was maximal at the beginning of desiccation and then reduced with increased water loss. Desiccation markedly affected the light requirement of photosynthesis but its effect on light compensation points was insignificant. Elevated CO_2 enhanced the photosynthetic activity, narrowed the scope of optimum temperature, promoted the light utilization efficiency, decreased the apparent photosynthetic affinity to CO_2 and dark respiratory activity during desiccation. Photorespiratory CO_2 release could not be detected during the course of desiccation. Furthermore, daily production of high-CO_2-grown samples with twice daily watering in high light zone was the maximum. Elevated CO_2 enhanced the growth of M. aeruginosa by 52 - 77% in the late exponential and stationary phase. Pigment composition did not alter with the increase of CO_2 concentration, but the content of chlorophyll a per cell decreased. Dark respiration and photosynthetic efficiency normalized with chlorophyll a content seemed to increase at elevated CO_2, while light-saturated photosynthesis per cell and I_k values seemed to decrease. M. Aeruginosa showed high apparent photosynthetic affinity for DIC, and DIC saturated photosynthesis and the K_(0.5)(DIC) values were little affected by the increase of CO_2 concentration. The photosynthetic characteristics of N. flagelliforme were different from M. Aeruginosa, the former could be sensitive to elevated CO_2. Meanwhile, their responses to light and temperature regimes were distinct. These reflected their interspecific difference and adaptability to their habitats.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12536
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
发状念珠藻和铜绿微囊藻的光合作用研究.邱保胜[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2000.20-25
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