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题名: 华鲮属鱼类形态度量学、系统学及生物地理学研究
作者: 张鹗
答辩日期: 1999
导师: 陈宜瑜
专业: 水生生物学
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 华鲮属 ; 形态度量学 ; 物种有效性 ; 分支系统学 ; 系统发育关系 ; 分布 ; 隔离分化生物地理学 ; 水系发育历史 ; 淡水鱼类区系分化 ; 西南地区
摘要: 运用(多变量)形态度量学方法,研究东业特有鲤科鱼类类群——华鲮属鱼类的形态差异,对其在分类上存有疑问的种或亚种17个框架测量距离进行主成分分析。根据主成分分析结果,评价这些种类的物种有效性。采用分支系统学方法,重建华鲮属鱼类的系统发育关系。选择舌唇鱼属、长背 属和鲮属作为外类群,对79个形态学性状进行简约性分析。为了验证最简约系统树中节点的稳定性,以确立华鲮属的单系性,按照外类群替代方法,以这三个类群其中一或两个作为外类群而将其余的作为内类群进行分析。用隔离分化生物地理学的原理和方法,闹明华鲮属鱼类分布格局的形成,并分析西南地区水系发育历史和淡水鱼类区系的分化。基于华鲮属和(左鱼右晏)鮡类鱼类一致性分布格局,给出西南地区水系发育历史的假设;依据华鲮属鱼类同其他类群(倒刺鲃属、(左鱼右晏)鮡类鱼类和异华鲮类鱼类)共同享有的生物地理学格局,对西南地区淡水鱼类区系的分化作出隔离分化解释。主要研究结论表述如下:1.华鲮与滇华鲮、桂华鲮与元江华鲮以及盆唇华鲮与伍氏华鲮这些亚种应为独立的物种单元;朱氏华鲮是华鲮属中一个不同于云南华鲮的有效种;墨脱华鲮是似鲮华鲮的同物异名。2.华鲮属包含了12个种,即华鲮、湘华鲮、桂华鲮、滇华鲮、元江华鲮、河口华鲮、云南华鲮、盆唇华鲮、伍氏华鲮、宽头华鲮、朱氏华鲮和似鲮华鲮。3.华鲮属是野鲮亚科中的一个单系群,它的姐妹群可能是舌唇鱼属。4.华鲮属鱼类种间最可能的系统发育关系假设是:((((((((华鲮,湘华鲮),桂华鲮),滇华鲮),元江华鲮),(河口华鲮,云南华鲮)),(盆唇华鲮,伍氏华鲮)),(宽头华鲮,朱氏华鲮)),似鲮华鲮)。5. 华鲮属鱼类祖先分布区域可能是包括元江、澜沧江、怒江和伊洛瓦底江在内的青藏高原东部。盆唇华鲮和伍氏华鲮这一对姐妹物种的异域分布可能是海南岛与大陆分离这一隔离分化事件的结果。宽头华鲮和朱氏华鲮、河口华鲮和云南华鲮、华鲮+湘华鲮和桂华鲮以及华鲮+湘华鲮+桂华鲮和滇华鲮之间的异域分布格局可能是澜沧江、元江、珠江和长江水系之间分水岭形成这一隔离分化事件的结果。6.华鲮属和(左鱼右晏)鮡类鱼类这两个流水性类群生物地理学一致性提示,我国西南地区河流水系发育的历史格局是:(((((长江上游,长江中游),(珠江上游,珠江中下游),元江),((澜沧江,怒江,伊洛瓦底江),雅鲁藏布江))。7.无论是单独由华鲮属和(左鱼右晏)鮡类鱼类,还是二者共同衍生的生物地理学假设,都没有支持金沙江曾经流通红河的地质学假设。8.依据分布于西南地区的华鲮属、倒刺鲃属、(左鱼右晏)鮡类和异华鲮类鱼类系统发育关系,隔离分化生物地理学研究结果提示,此区域内5个特有生物区之间相互关系的历史格局如下:①(青藏高原东部,((云贵高原南部高地,云贵高原南部低地),(长江中下游平原,云贵高原北部)))或②(青藏高原东部,(长江中下游平原,((云贵高原南部高地,云贵高原南部低地),云贵高原北部)))。9.对这两个历史格局可作出的隔离分化解释是:我国西南地区先前存在一个广泛分布的祖先生物区系,同青藏高原隆升密切相关的地貌学或生态学障碍使得此祖先区域连续隔离分化为5个不同的特有生物区。1O.华鲮属、倒刺鲃属、(左鱼右晏)鮡类鱼类和异华鲮类鱼类生物地理学分析所得出的结论,支持了陈宜瑜等(1998)依据横断山区淡水鱼类相似性所给出的区域关系的假设。青藏高原是一个独立区域单元,它在动物地理区划上应与东洋区和古北区享有相同的区划地位。
英文摘要: Multivariate morphometrics was utilized to investigate the distinctness of the endemic East Asia cyprinid genus Sinilabeo Rendahl,1932. The principal component analysis was performed for 17 truss measurements among the problematic species or subspecies in this genus. On the basis of the analysis outcome, validity of these species or subspecies is evaluated. Phylogenetic relationship of the genus Sinilabeo was reconstructed using cladistic method. Lobocheilos, Labiobarbus and Cirrhinus were selected as the outgroups and 79 morphological characters were parsimoniously analyzed. For the purpose of verifying the stability of the internal nodes in the final most-parsimonious tree(s) and hence testifying the monophyly of Sinilabeo, one or two of Lobocheilos, Cirrhinus and Labiobarbus were selected as the outgroup following the outgroup substitution approach. Vicariance biogeographical approach was employed to illuminate the geographical distribution of the genus Sinilabeo and analyze the historical development pattern of river systems and the differentiation of freshwater fish faunas within southwestern China, where the genus Sinilabeo is mainly distributed. The historical development pattern of river systems within southwestern China is suggested based on the Congruent biogeographical pattern between the Pareuchiloglanis-Oreoglanis group and the genus Sinilabeo. The vicariance explanation is proposed for the differentiation of freshwater fish faunas within southwestern China according to the common biogeographical pattern shared among the genus Sinilabeo and three other monophyletic fish groups, such as the Pareuchiloglanis-Oreoglanis group, the Parasinilabeo group and the genus Spinibarbus. All the results are summarized as follow: 1. Subspecies previously described in the genus Sinilabeo, such as S. r. rendahli and S. r. lemassoni, S. d. discognathoides and S. cl. wui, or S. d. decorus and S. d. xanthogenys, are treated as a valid species here, respectively; S. zhui is considered as a valid species, from which it differs from S. yunnanensis; and S. dero is designated to be a synonym of the species S. cirrhinoides. 2. The genus Sinilabeo tentatively includes twelve valid species, i.e. S. rendahli, S. tungting, S. decorus, S. lemassoni, S. xanthogenys, S. wui, S. tonkiensis, S. yunnanensis, S. discognathoides, S. zhui, S. laticeps and S. cirrhinoides. 3. The genus Sinilabeo is testified to be a monophyletic group, whose sister group is probably the genus Lobocheilos. 4. Phylogenetic interrelationship for these species in the genus Sinilabeo is hypothesized to be that: ((((((S. rendahli, S. tungting), S. decorus), S. lemassoni), S. xanthogenys), (S. tonkiensis, S. yunnanensis)), (S. wui, S. discognathoides)), (S. laticeps, S. zhui)), S. cirrhinoides). 5. The eastern Qinghai-Xizang plateau is postulated to be the ancestral area of the genus Sinilabeo, which formerly spread over Yiluowadijiang river, Nujiang river, Lancangjiang river and Yuanjiang river. Allopatric distribution pattern between S. discognathoides and S. wui is supposed to result from the vicariant event that was caused by the separation of Hainan island from mainland; the same distribution pattern occurs between S. laticeps and S. zhui, S. tonkiensis and S. yunnanensis, S. rendahli+S. tungting and S. decorus, or S. rendahli+S. tungting+S. decorus and S. lemassoni. The vicariant event responsible for elucidating this pattern is probably related to the formation of the delineation among Lancangjiang river, Yuanjiang river, the Pearl river and the Yangtze river. 6. The congruent biogeographical pattern derived from the genus Sinilabeo and the Pareuchiloglanis-Oreoglanis group suggests the following historical development pattern of rivers system within southwestern China: ((((upper Yangtze river, middle Yangtze river), (upper Pearl river, middle and lower Pearl river)), Yuanjiang river), (((Yiluowadijiang river, Lancangjiang river, Nujiang river), Yaluzangbujiang river)). 7. The geological hypothesis that Jinshajiang river was connected to Red river is unwarranted by the biogeographical hypothesis derived from both the gen us Sinilabeo and Pareuchiloglanis-Oreoglanis group or respectively. 8. The biogeographical congruence among the Parasinilabeo group, the genus Sinilabeo, the Pareuchiloglanis-Oreoglanis group and the genus Spinibarbus suggests the following two possible historical patterns for area interre-lationships of areas of endemism within southwestern China: (1)(((northern Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, middle and mower Yangtze Plain), (lowland of southern Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, highland of southern Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau)), eastern Qinghai-xizang Plateau));(2) ((northern Yunnan-Guizhou, (lowland of southern Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, highland of southern Yun-nan-Guizhou Plateau)), middle and lower Yangtze Plain )), eastern Qinghai-xizang Plateau)). 9. Two vicariance hypothesis are constructed to explain the historical patterns for interrelationships of areas of endemism within southwestern China. A widespread ancestral biota is postulated to have been fragmented into five areas of endemism by the occurrence of geo-morphological or ecological barriers closely related to the uplift of Qinghai-Xizang plateau. 10. The biogeographically based conclusions derived from Spinibarbus, the Pareuchiloglanis-Oreoglanis group, the Parasinilabeo group and Sinilabeo support the hypothesis of interarea relationships proposed by Chen(1998) based on the faunistic similarities of freshwater fishes in the Hengdanshan regions. The Qinghai-Xizang plateau should be considered as a independent area, which shares the same position with the Holarctic region or the Oriental region in zoogeographical divisions.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12530
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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华鲮属鱼类形态度量学、系统学及生物地理学研究.张鹗[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,1999.20-25
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