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鳜和乌鳢幼鱼生长及能量收支的比较研究
刘家寿
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor刘建康 ; 崔奕波
1998
Degree Grantor中国科学院水生生物研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院水生生物研究所
Degree Discipline水生生物学
Keyword摄食 生长 能量收支 温度 体重 摄食水平 能量 学模型
Abstract本文研究了体重47.2 ~ 540.2 g的鳜(Siniperca chuatsi)和45.0 ~ 546.2 g的鳢(Channa argus)在10、15、20、25、30和35 ℃时的最大摄食率和特定生长率;体重42.12 ~ 510.23 g的鳜和41.50 ~ 510.34 g的乌鳢在上述6个温度下的的标准代谢率;体重202.03(±14.00) g的鳜和200.78(±19.30) g的乌鳢在28 ℃时的特殊动力作用;体重197.96(±12.20) g的鳜和188.54(±13.80) g的乌鳢在0、1%、2%、4%和最大摄食水平下的能量收支;实验条件下(不同摄食水平)和天然条件下(不同体重)鳜和乌鳢的生化组成和能值。主要研究结果如下:1.鳜和乌鳢的最大摄食率随体重的增加而增加,二者的关系为幂函数关系。鳜和乌鳢的平均体重指数分别为0.60和0.52。2.鳜的最大摄食率随温度的上升而增加,在25~35 ℃之间形成“最适温度平台”;低温时,乌鳢的最大摄食率随温度的上升而增加,在25~30 ℃之间形成“最适温度平台”,之后随温度的增加而下降;鳜的适宜摄食温度较乌鳢广。3.鳜和乌鳢最大摄食率与体重和水温的关系可用多元回归方程分别表示为:1nC_(max) = -4.880 + 0.5971nW + 0.284t - 0.0048T~2和1nCmax = -6.718 + 0.5221nW + 0.440T - 0.077T~2,式中C_(max)为最大摄食率(g/d),W为体重(g),T为水温(℃)。体重和水温对二午的最大摄食率没有显著的交互作用。4.鳜和乌鳢的特定生长率随体重的增加而减少,二者的关系为幂函数关系;鳜的平均体重指数为-0.83,乌鳢的平均体重指数随温度的增加而减少。5.鳜的特定生长率随温度的增加而增加,在25~35 ℃形成“最适湿度平台”;乌鳢的最适生长温度随体重的增加而下降。6.鳜和乌鳢的特定生长率与体重和水温的关系可用多元回归方程分别表示为:1n(SGR + 0.25) = -0.439 - 0.5001nW + 0.20T - 0.0046T ~2 和1n(SGR + 0.25) = - 6.165 + (0.175 - 0.026T)1nW + 0.571T - 0.0078T~2, 式中SGR为特定生长率(%/d)、W为体重(g),T为水温(℃)。体重和水温对鳜特定生长率没有显著的交互作用,但对乌鳢的特定生长率则有显著的交互作用。7.鳜和乌鳢的标准代谢率随体重的增加而增加,二者的关系为幂函数关系。鳜和乌鳢的平均体重指数分别为0.77和0.80。8.鳜和乌鳢的标准代谢率随温度的增加而增加,二者的关系亦为幂函数关系。鳜和乌鳢的平均温度指数分别为1.39和2.10。低温时鳜的标准代谢率高于乌鳢,高温时乌鳢的标准代谢率高于鳜。9.鳜和乌鳢的标准代谢率与体重和水温的关系可用多元回归方程分别表示为:1nR_s = -0.012 + 0.7721nW + 1.3871nT 和1nR_s = -2.328 + 0.8011nW + 2.1041nT。式中R_s为标准代谢率(mg O_2/h)、W为体重(kg)、T为水温(℃)。体重和水温对鳜和乌鳢的标准代谢率没有显著的交互作用。10.鳜和乌鳢特珠动力作用占食物能的比例分别为8.73%和6.75%。11.不同体重的野生鳜和乌鳢与实验条件下以不同摄食水平饲养的鳜和乌鳢身体的蛋白质含量、脂肪含量和能值与干物质的关系并不完全吻合。12.鳜和乌鳢湿重、干重、蛋白质和能值的特定生长率与摄食水平之间为直线关系;其生长效率随摄食水平的增加而增加。13.鳜和乌鳢的排粪率和排泄率随摄食水平的增加而增加。14.最大摄食水平下鳜和乌鳢的能量收式分别为:100C = 8.52F + 35.89R + 50.25G和100C = 7.01F + 4.76U + 40.13R + 48.10G。式中C、F、U、R和G分别为摄食、排粪、排泄、代谢和生长。15.鳜和乌鳢的生物能量学模型包括摄食率、排粪率、排泄率、标准代谢、SDA、活动代谢和能值等子模型。利用上述子模型建立的鳜和乌鳢的生物能量学模型对标准代谢最为敏感,对排粪、排泄和SDA最不敏感。16.利用生物能量学模型预测的鳜和乌鳢在不同摄食水平、不同体重、不同温度下的特定生长率及周年生长的结果与实际观测的结果基本吻合。
Other AbstractA serial studies on rates of maximum food consumption, growth and energy budgets of the immature mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi (Basilewsky) and Chinese snakehead Channa argus (Cantor) were conducted in the laboratory. The studies included experiments on the rates of maximum food consumption and growth by mandarin fish weighing 47.2~540.2 g and Chinese snakehead weighing 45.0~546.2 g at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 ℃, standard metabolism in mandarin fish weighing 42.12~510.23 g and Chinese snakehead weighing 41.50~510.34 g at temperatures described above; specific dynamic action (SDA) in mandarin fish weighing 202.03(±14.00)g and Chinese snakehead weighing 200.78(±19.30) g at 28 ℃; energy budgets of the mandarin fish weighing 197.96(±12.20) g and the Chinese snakehead weighing 188.54(±13.80) g at five ration levels ranging from starvation to ad libitum at 28 ℃; biochemical composition and energy content of the mandarin fish and the Chinese snakehead at different ration levels and with different body sizes. From these studies, the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. Maximum rate of food consumption in the mandarin fish and the Chinese snakehead increased with increasing body weight. The relationship between maximum rate of food consumption and body weight could be described by a power function. The average weight exponent was 0.60 in the mandarin fish and 0.52 in the Chinese snakehead. 2. Maximum rate of food consumption in the mandarin fish increased with increasing temperature, and an "optimum temperature platform" was formed between 25~35 ℃. At lower temperatures, maximum rate of food consumption in the Chinese snakehead increased with increasing temperature and at "optimum temperature platform" was tormed between 23~30 ℃ A further increase in temperature led to decreased rates of food consumption. The mandarin fish had a wider temperature adaptation range than the Chinese snakehead. 3. The combined relationship between maximum rate of food consumption (C_(max,) g/day), body weight (W, g) and temperature (T, ℃) could be described by the multiple regression equations: InC_(max) = -4.880 + 0.5971nW + 0.0048T~2 for the mandarin fish and 1nC_(max) = -6.718 + 0.5221nW + 0.440T - 0.077T~2 for the Chinese snakehead. No significant interaction of body weight and temperature on maximum rate of food consumption was found either in the mandarin fish or in the Chinese snakehead. 4. Specific growth rate (SGR, %/d) decreased with increasing body weight (W, g) both in the mandarin fish and the Chinese snakehead. The relationship between SGR and W could be described by a power function. The weight exponent was -0.83 in mandarin fish, but tended to decrease with increasing temperature in Chinese snakehead. 5. Specific growth rate in mandarin fish increased with increasing temperature, and an "optimum temperature platform" was formed between 25~35 ℃. The optimum temperature for growth in Chinese snakehead tended to decrease with increasing body weight. 6. The combined relationship between specific growth rate (SGR, %/d), body weight (W, g) and temperature (T, ℃) could be described by the multiple regression equations: 1n(SGR + 0.25) = -0.439 - 0.5001nW + 0.270T - 0.0046T~2 for the mandarin fish and 1n(SGR + 0.25) = -6.150 + (0.175 - 0.026T)1nW + 0.571T - 0.0078T~2 for the Chinese snakehead. Significant interaction of body weight and temperature on specific growth rate was found in Chinese snakehead, but not in the mandarin fish. 7. Rate of standard metabolism (R_s, mg O_2/h) increased with increasing body weight (W, kg) both in mandarin fish and Chinese snakehead. The relationship between R_s and W could be described by a power function. The average weight exponent was 0.77 in mandarin fish and 0.80 in Chinese snakehead. 8. Rate of standard metabolism in the mandarin fish and the Chinese snakehead increased with increasing temperature (T, ℃). The relationship between R_s and T could be described by a power function. The temperature exponent was 1.39 in mandarin fish and 2.10 in Chinese snakehead. 9. The combined relationship between rate of standard metabolism (R_s, mg O_2/h), body weight (W, kg) and temperature (T, ℃) could be described by the multiple regression equations: 1nR_s = -0.012 + 0.7721nT for the mandarin fish and 1nR_s = -2.328 + 0.8011nW + 2.1041nT for the Chinese snakehead. No significant interaction of body weight and temperature on R_s was found either in the mandarin fish or in the Chinese snakehead. 10. The proportion of food energy channelled to specific dynamic action was 8.73% in the mandarin fish and 6.75% in the Chinese snakehead. 11. The relationships between dry matter content and contents of protein, lipid and energy established using wild fish of different body sizes and fish fed different ration levels did not agree completely. 12. Specific growth rates in wet weight, dry weight, protein and energy both in mandarin fish and Chinese snakehead increased linearly with increased ration level. The growth efficiency increased curvilinearly with increasing ration level. 13. Faecal production and nitrogenous excretion in the mandarin fish and the Chinese snakehead increased with increasing ration level. 14. The energy budgets at maximum ration level were: 100C - 8.52F + 5.33U + 35.89R + 50.25G for the mandarin fish and 100C - 7.01F + 4.76U + 40.13R + 48.10G for the Chinese snakehead, where C, F, U, R, and G were food consumption, faecal production, nitrogenous excretion, metabolism and growth, respectively. 15. The bioenergetics models for the mandarin fish and the Chinese snakehead included submodels of food consumption, faecal production, nitrogenous excretion, standard metabolism, activity metabolism, SDA and energy. The model prediction was most sensitive to the parameters of the submodel for standard metabolism and was not sensitive to the parameters of the submodels for faecal production, nitrogenous excretion and SDA both in mandarin fish and Chinese snakehead. 16. The predicted growth from the bioenergetics models for the mandarin fish and the Chinese snakehead agreed well with the observed growth.
Pages191
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12524
Collection学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
刘家寿. 鳜和乌鳢幼鱼生长及能量收支的比较研究[D]. 中国科学院水生生物研究所. 中国科学院水生生物研究所,1998.
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