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题名: 长江中下游淡水贝类的研究
作者: 吴小平
答辩日期: 1998
导师: 梁彦龄
专业: 水生生物学
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 长江中下游 ; 淡下贝类 ; 区系 ; 形态解剖 ; 齿舌 ; 钩介幼虫 ; 种群生态
摘要: 传统的淡水贝类主要依据贝壳形态特征,但贝壳的形态随环境的不同而有变异,往往导致分类上的混乱。长江中下游地区的贝类,尽管已有学者做过分类区系工作,报道过许多物种,但其种类的有效性及分类位置仍不十分清楚、存在许多争议,且形态解剖方面的资料极少。因此对这一地区淡水贝类作进一步研究有必要。本文报道对长江中下游淡水贝类的分类、形态和生态的研究结果。除种类记述外,作者从多个角度探讨了贝类特征。应用热量描电镜及比较解剖学方法及腹足类的齿舌、双壳类的鳃、进出水管及贝壳的细微结构进行分析比较,系统地研究了蚌科钩介幼虫的形态并初步阐明其在分类上的意义。主要研究结果如下:1. 在系统分类及区系复核的基础上,记述淡水贝类79种,其中腹足类36种,隶属5科18属。发现我国腹足类一新记录属新记录种,即平边笠贝(Ferrissia parallela (Haldeman))。通过对贝壳及齿舌形态的分析,认为梨形环棱螺(B. purificata (Heude))是方形环棱螺(Bellamya quadrata (Benson))次级同物异名。在双壳类方面,除将金黄雕刻蚌重新给组合为金黄尖嵴蚌(Acuticosta aurora com. nov.)外,还建立尖丽蚌新属(Aculamprotula gen. nov.)。其模式种为绢丝丽蚌(Alulamprotula fibrosa(Heude),comb. nov.),且包括天津尖丽蚌(Aculamprotula tientsinensis (Heude),comb. nov.),失衡尖丽蚌(Aculamprotula tortuosa (Heude),comb. nov.)和环带尖丽蚌(Aculamprotula zonata (Heude),comb. nov.)。该属主要特征为:贝壳前端缩小,后端宽大,壳顶向前方突出,位于壳背缘的最前方。鳃瓣间隔膜完整,鳃水管间无小孔相通。育儿囊由两片外鳃构成,钩介幼虫有钩。2. 大型通江湖泊(鄱阳湖、洞庭湖)腹足类和双壳类分别占所记录种类的85%和100%。而中小型草型湖泊仅占46.5%和29%,尤以双壳类少见。聚类分析显示,长江中下游13个湖泊贝类区系可分为3组:第一组为大型通江湖泊即鄱阳湖与洞庭湖;另一组为中小型草型湖泊,包括梁子湖等10个湖泊;第三组仅包括太湖。3. 对22种淡水腹足类齿舌作了详细描述。研究表明齿舌上齿的排列方式,中央齿、测齿、缘齿的形态及上缘尖齿形态和数目在不同的科、属中有明显差异。齿舌对于属上单元的分类是有价值的。4. 根据鳃水管及瓣间隔膜的特点,将双壳类21种蚌的鳃分为四种类型。I型:无真正的鳃水管,瓣间隔膜不完整,成束状;II型:有鳃水管,但隔膜上有小孔,鳃水管之间相通;III型:有鳃水管,隔膜完整,鳃水管之间不相通;IV型:有鳃水管,隔膜完整,鳃水管被分成三部分。这些特征对蚌科属上单元的分类有重要意义。进、出水管的形态则可分为6种类型,它们与贝壳的形态和生活方式有较密切的关系,其分类意义尚待进一步认识。5. 双壳类贝壳棱柱层的厚度在各类群中较为稳定,其角柱状结构随种类不同而有单层和复层之分。扫描电镜下,珍珠层“块状”结构的大小及排列方式也表现出多样性。这些差异很可能具分类上的意义。6. 对蚌科18种钩介幼虫的形态作了比较研究,其中13种为首次报道。研究发现钩介幼虫的外形、大小、壳钩的有无、壳表面的壳饰、壳孔、感觉毛、幼虫丝等结构在不同种间有较大差异,这些特征在种或种以上单元的分类上极有价值。同时观察了21种蚌的育儿囊,对其中12种蚌育儿囊的类型作了订正。7. 比较分析了长江中下游10个浅水湖泊贝类的现存量,其密度为10.4-296.6ind.m~(-2);生物量为1.8-141.0g.m~(-2)。同时,就东湖湖球蚬的种群生态进行初步研究。结果表明,湖球蚬生活史周期约为1年,繁殖季节为3-6月。个体的生长、种群存活可分别用方程表示为:L = 0.589e~(0.154t),S = 540.51e~(-0.24t),式中L,壳长(mm);S,存活量(ind);t,年龄(月)。
英文摘要: Traditionally, the classification of freshwater Mollusca was mainly based on shell characteristics, but shells were greatly variable under different environmental conditions and hence it usually resulted in taxonomic confusion. This was prominently freshwater and terrestrial Mollusca along Changjiang River and reported as many as 650 species. However, many species are likely to be synonyomous. Since there are no current extensive researches except a few faunal investigations on Mollusca in shallow lakes along mid-lower Changjiang River was carried out in 1995-1997. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Altogether 79 species belonging to two classes, 16 families, and 35 genera are reported. Among the findings, one genus and one species, Ferrissia parallela (Haldeman) of Ancylidae is regarded as new recorded genus and species in China. According to the differences of gill structure and glochidial morphology, Lamprotula fibrosa (Heude) and three allied species are recombined into a new unionid genus, Aculamprotula gen. nov., Parreysia aurora(Heude) is reassigned to Acuticosta as a new combination. 2. Distribution of molluscs in 13 lakes along mid-lower Changjiang River were investigated and the faunal similarities are calculated by means of cluster analysis methods. The lakes can be divided into three groups: Group one consists of Poyang with Changjiang River. Group two includes 10 lakes, of all middle or small sizes with abundant vegetation. The third group contains only Taihu lake located in lower Changjiang River and characterised by its abundant bivalves. 3. Morphological and anatomical characters of taxonomic significance are provided: 1) Radular morphology of 22 species of freshwater gastropods belonging to 9 families and 13 genera were examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM). They falls into three kinds: I. Radula with one row central and lateral teeth, two rows marginal teeth. This group consists of Viviparidae, Bithyniidae, Pomatiopsidae, symmetrical biscuspid or unicupid central teeth, many rows of tricuspid lateral teeth and comb-like marginal teeth. It includes Lymnaeidae and Planorbidae. III: Radula with one row of bicupid central teeth and many rows of lateral or marginal teeth, only Physidae is included. 2) A comparative anatomy mainly on demibranches and siphons of 21 unionid species were made. Four types of demibranches, viz. A: without true water tubes and septa; B: with performed septa; C: septa without perforation; D: with tripartite water tubes were determined. Their difference are considered as significant for the classification in higher taxonomic levels, e.g. genus and subfamily. Six types of excurrent and incurrent siphons were recognized and the taxonomic significance needs further study. 3) Shell microstructure of 10 unionid species was examined under SEM. The thickness of prismatic layer and structure of nacreous layer were discovered to the different among the species. It implies shell microstructure is of taxonomic value. 4. Comparative morphology of glochidia of 18 unionid species (Unio douglasiae, Acuticosta aurora, Acuticosta chinensis, Lanceolaria eucylindrica, Lan. gladiola, Lan. grayama, Cuneopsis pisciculus, Lamprotula cornuum-lunae, Lam. caveata, Aculamprotula fibrosa, Hyriopsis cumingii, Anodonta woodiana woodiana, A. pacifica, A. lucida, A. angula, A. arcaeformis, Cristaria plicata, Lepidodesma languilati. was studied by using optical and SEM. Hookles glochidia were observed in the species of Lamprotula and Hyriopsis and hooked ones in all of other genera. Morphological characters including shape, size, decoration and pore of shell surface, hook, spines, sensory hairs as well as larval thread are more or less different among species. Characters that are considered to the significant for species identification and phylogenetic analysis are listed as follows: Structure Characters Marsupia Endobranchial or ectobranchial Conglutination Present or absent Glochidium size Large, middle or small Glochidial shape Elongated triangular, broader triangular, semi-elliptical, gourd-shaped or semicircle Shell surface Pores or pits Sculpture of surface Coarse, spines or decoration Hook Present or absent Hook shape Triangular, anchor-shaped or ridge and wing fused Sensory hairs Two pairs, three pairs or four pairs Spines Two rows, three rows or irregular Inner thread Thick or thin Outer thread Thick or thin 5. Standing crops of freshwater molluses in 10 lakes along mid-lower Changjiang River are compared. It showed that the medial and small macrophytic lakes have higher density and biomass, reaching 296.6 ind.m~(-2) and 141.0 g.m~(-2), respectively. 6. The population ecology of Sphaerium laucstre was studied Sphaerium laucstre is monoecism and has life span about one year in Donghu Lake. Spawning occurred from March to June. Shell growth and population survivorship can be expressed as follows: Shell growth: L = 0.589e~(0.154t) Population survivor(S): S = 540.51e~(-0.24t) where L: shell length(mm); t: age(month)
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12522
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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长江中下游淡水贝类的研究.吴小平[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,1998.20-25
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