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题名: 稀有鮈鲫的饲养管理、形态特征及遗传多样性
作者: 王剑伟
答辩日期: 1998
导师: 曹文宣
专业: 水生生物学
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 稀有鮈鲫 ; 鱼类实验动物 ; 饲养管理 ; 种群 ; 近交群 ; 形态 ; 判别分析 ; 框架分析 ; 遗传多样性
摘要: 论文分为四个部分:第一部分“稀有鮈鲫与鱼类实验动物”,从实验动物科学的角度,对国内外实验鱼和鱼类实验动物主面的研究进展进行了文献综述,对我鱼类实验动物的形发和研究提出了建议;对我国新的实验鱼稀有鮈鲫的研究与应用概况进行了总结,证明了它的确是一种优良实验鱼,并有可能成为一种标准的实类实验动物。其中,部分稀有鮈鲫有生物学资料是作者主持的研究工作中尚未公开的原始资料。第二部分“稀有鮈鲫的饲养管理主法”,系统地总结了8年来稀有鮈鲫饲养管理方面的经验,并对稀有鮈鲫的一般饲养方法、繁殖方法、培苗方法、相关技术与方法等进行了必要的规范,其中,主要包括水族箱和饲养系统、水温等环境条件的控制、饵料与投喂、换水与清污、疾病预防、饲养密度、亲鱼及卵、苗的管理、麻醉方法等。近期实测数据表明,应用作者提出的方法进行实际饲养,亲鱼所产卵的58%左右可最终饲养成鱼;90日龄时的全长可达38mm以上,并有部分个体达性腺成熟。第三部分“稀有鮈鲫形态牲的研究”,对稀有鮈鲫分布于四川省汉源县、灌县、彭县的3个地理种群及室养近交第10代的形态特征进行了比较研究,从可数性状的众数和均值比较、可量性状的方差分析、判别方法等方面证明不同群体间的形态特征上存在一定差异;同时,由于各群体在外部器官的形态、位置等描述性性状上未见差异,可数性状、可量性状的变化范围也是重叠的,因此,稀有鮈鲫的形态特征在群体间的分化是较小的,上述差异可看作是同一物种地理种群间,或近交群体与原种间的差异。判别分析表明,近交10代与自然种群间的差异较大,用5个性状就可对F10进行100%的判别,而自然种群要用15个性状才能获得比较理想的判别效果。在自然种群中,汉源种群与灌县种群差异最小,这可能与其水系关系,种群数量等有关。研究还表明,框架测量数据与传统可量性状对种群的判别有着同样重要的作用,因此,用形态学的主法对鱼类种群进行鉴别时,应尽量采用各类不同性质和来源的性状,兼顾在总体上和在单项指标上探讨种群间的差异。第四部分“稀有鮈鲫的遗传多样性”,用RAPD技术对稀有鮈鲫3个自然种群、近交第10代的遗传多样性和群体间的差异进行研究。在用34个引物扩增出的226个座位上,汉源种群在224个座位上有扩增,其中多态座位50%,灌县、彭县种群在225个座位上有扩增,其中多态座位分别占48.89%和45.78%;近交10代只在201个座位上有有扩增,且多态座位仅6.47%。遗传相似率(共有条带率)和香农多样性指数计算表明,自然种群内个体间平均相似率界于90.043%-91.134%之间,而F10个体间的平均相似率为99.622%;自然种群的多样性指数为0.2911-0.3235,F10仅0.03774。因此,自然种群保持了较丰富的遗传多样性,而F10的遗传多样性则很低。在自然种群中,汉源种群的遗传多样性最丰富,灌县种群次之,彭县种群最低,这可能与其种群数量大小有关。近交10代具有很低的遗传多样性说明近交对稀有鮈鲫的遗传纯化起到了重要作用;由于RAPD技术能从多态座位比例、遗传相似率、多样性指数等方面反映近交群体的低多样性及其与原种的差异,因而可作为鱼类近交系鉴别和鉴定的方法之一。研究还表明,虽然未发现可作为鉴别种群的分子遗传标记,但自然种群间在11-19个座位上的表型频率有统计意义上的差异,表明自然种群间在遗传结构上存在差异。多样性指数分析则表明,自然种群遗传多样性的91.33来自种群内,而8.67来自于种群间。在对RAPD技术的重复性、结果统计方法进行探讨后,作者认为该技术对种下遗传分析是十分有效的。
英文摘要: Four main parts were included in the present dissertation. Part 1: "Gobiocypris rarus and fish as laboratory animal". First, a review on researches of fish as laboratory animal was given. Then, suggestions on exploitation researches in China were provided. The update researches and applications of Gobiocypris rarus as a new laboratory animal proved that the fish showed excellent biology characters and would probably become a standardized laboratory animal. Some of the original data were presented in this part as well. Part 2: "Methods for the care of Gobiocypris rarus". Based on the eight years experiences on rare minnow culturing, culture management including general methods for care, breeding, fry culturing, and other related techniques were summed up systematically and standardized. These methods involved were summed up systematically and standardized. These methods involved were summed up systematically and standardized. These methods involved designs of tanks and other culturing systems, temperature and other environmental factors controlling, diet and feeding, water changing and tanks cleaning, disease defending, culturing density, egg and fry caring, anesthetic methods and so on. According to the recent data, the fish successfully cultured to 90 days was about 58 percent of the eggs spawned, while the average total length might exceed 38 mm, and individuals could get sexual maturity if the recommended methods were used. Part 3: "Study on morphological characters of Gobiocypris rarus". Comparative studies on morphology among Hanyuan population (HY), Guanxian population (GX), Pengxian population (PX), and the tenth inbreeding descendant (F10) were made. Comparison on the modes and means of countable characters, showed that there was significant difference among populations. However, neither discrepancy among populations was found on descriptive characters of external organs, nor on the ranges of countable and measurable characters, the morphological differentiation among populations was limited. The difference on means and modes mentioned above could be regarded as variance of the same species among geographic populations, or between inbreeding descendant and natural population only. Discriminant analysis showed that the differences between F10 and natural populations was relatively larger than that among natural populations. For example, F10 could be absolutely distinguished from natural population using five measurable characters, whereas, in order to discriminate natural populations each other perfectly, fifteen characters should be used. Among natural populations, difference between HY and GX was very small. This could be explained by the geographic distribution and population abundance. Both truss network and traditional measurable characters were important for discrimination of populations. It was suggested to use different types of characters when discriminating populations by morphological features as well as multiple statistical methods. Part 4: "Genetic diversity of Gobiocypris rarus". Genetic diversity and the difference among three natural populations and F10 were studied using random amplified polymorphic DNA. A total of 226 locus were studied applying 34 random primers. The number of total locus and the percentage of monomorphic locus were different in populations. HY population had a total of 224 locus, 50 percent of them were polymorphic. To GX the parallel data was 225, 48.89%; to PX, 225, 45.78%, and to F10, 201, 6.47% respectively. Besides these differences genetic similarity and the Shannon's diversity index were far different among F10 and natural populations. In natural populations, the average similarity between any two individuals ranged from 90.043% to 91.134%, but in F10, the similarity was as high as 99.622%. The Shannon's index of natural populations was between 0.2911 to 0.3235, while F10 was only 0.3774. So it was very obvious, the genetic diversity in natural populations was much higher than that of F10. Correspondence to population abundance, HY had the highest genetic diversity among natural populations, yet PX had the lowest. The low genetic diversity in F10 showed that inbreeding had remarkable effect on genetic purification. Because the low genetic diversity of inbreeding descendant could be showed by percentage of monomorphic locus, or genetic similarity, or Shannon's index, RAPD is certainly one of the methods to identify or to discriminate inbreeding strain. No molecular genetic marker was found to distinguish populations perfectly, however, genetic distance existed among natural populations because there were 11 to 19 locus on which the phenotypic frequency were different. Analysis on the coefficient of differentiation using Shannon's index revealed that 91.33% of total genetic diversity occurred within populations and 8.67% among populations. After discussing the reduplicative ability of RAPD and analysis methods for result statistic, the author demonstrated that RAPD is an effective method for genetic study of intraspecies.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12518
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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稀有鮈鲫的饲养管理、形态特征及遗传多样性.王剑伟[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,1998.20-25
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