中国科学院水生生物研究所机构知识库
Advanced  
IHB OpenIR  > 中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)  > 学位论文
题名: 萼花臂尾轮虫繁殖生物学研究
作者: 杨家新
答辩日期: 1997
导师: 刘建康 ; 黄祥飞
专业: 水生生物学
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 萼花臂尾轮虫 ; 繁殖生物学 ; 密度 ; 食物 ; 温度 ; 混交雌体 ; 卵雌比 ; 休眠卵 ; 萌发率 ; 生态工程 ; 培养
摘要: 本文对萼花臂尾轮虫的繁殖生物学进行了研究。主要包括:食物条件、温度和轮虫种群密度对萼花臂尾轮虫的平均产卵量、后代混交雌体百分率的影响:萼花臂尾轮虫休眠卵的萌发;维生素(E、B_(12))和稀土元素对萼花臂尾轮虫的种群密度、种群混交雌体百分率、卵雌比和种群高峰期的影响:鱼类(罗非鱼和泥鳅)-轮虫-藻类的生态培养。研究结果如下:1.种群密度、食物种类和温度刺激对萼花臂尾轮虫平均产卵量和混交雌体形成具有重要影响。单个体和群体培养时,随萼花臂尾轮虫密度增加,平均产卵量降低,后代个体中混交雌体百分率上升。母体密度高低与后代混交雌体的百分比具有明显相关性,单个个体和群体培养的差异不显著。卵囊藻浓度从0.25 * 10~6cellS ml~(-1)增加到2.0 * 10~6cells ml~(-1)时,各浓度组萼花臂尾轮虫平均产卵量均低于4.0个,卵囊藻浓度对萼花臂尾轮虫的平均产卵量的影响不显著。后代混交雌体的百分率随着卵囊藻浓度的增加,从36.11%降至12.50%;单独投喂小球藻时,轮虫的平均产卵量从6.0个增加到11.40个。随小球藻浓度增加,混交雌体百分率则从23.06%降至2.58%。当食物浓度继续增加到8.0 * 10~6 cells ml~(-1)时,平均产卵量又趋于下降,混交百分率也明显升高;小球藻和卵囊藻等量混合后。投喂萼花臂尾轮虫时,在上述浓度范围内,轮虫平均产卵量均在5.0个以下。小球藻是萼花臂尾轮虫理想的食物,且在浓度为2.0 * 10~6cells ml~(-1)时平均产卵量较高,混交雌体百分率最低。幼轮虫经2小时急剧冷休克(SS)和逐渐降温冷休克(GS)处理时,结果发现:与对照组(C)相比,其个体平均产卵量降低,后代混交雌体百分率上升。SS和C间混交雌体比例具显著差异,而SS和GS,GS和C处理间差异不显著。2.轮虫休眠卵的累积萌发率和萌发过程受诸多因子的影响。休眠卵形成时的原液保存的休眠卵,用过滤湖水就能获得较高的萌发率,萌发温度为30 ℃时,累积萌发率可达65%:母体的食物条件影响休眠卵的萌发率,投喂小球藻的母体形成的休眠卵,在不同温度下的累积萌发率均高于投喂混和藻时的萌发率:在5 ℃、避光保存10~30天的萼花臂尾轮虫休眠卵,在温度为30 ℃时,累积萌发率可达62%-73%;光照时间长短对萼花臂尾轮虫休眠卵萌发率无显著影响。3.添加维生素E和维生素B_(12)后,轮虫种群密度、混交雌体百分率和卵雌比的变化随维生素的浓度增加和温度的不同而发生变化。15 ℃时,添加维生素E后,加入10,40,80 ng ml~(-1)维生素E后,种群密度提高,混交雌体百分率较低,卵雌比高,高峰期延长:维生素E浓度高于100 ng ml~(-1)时,轮虫种群密度降低。25 ℃时,当维生素E浓度高于40ng ml~(-1)时,种群最大密度随着维生素E的浓度增加均有不同程度的提高。添加40ng ml~(-1)维生素时,最大密度达236ind. ml~(-1),维生素E浓度为40-100 ng ml~(-1)时,种群超过lOOind. ml~(-1)的时间延长。30 ℃时,添加维生素E后,各实验组的 轮虫种群最大密度均在100ind. ml~(-1)以上,且持续时间在3天以上。 15 ℃时,添加维生素B_(12)后,种群密度均有不同程度的提高,且以100ngml_(-1)时密度最高。25 ℃时添加维生素B_(12)后,种群增长速度加快,混交雌体百分率下降,卵雌比上升,密度提高并能维持较长时间:30 ℃时,添加20-80ng ml~(-1)维生素B_(12)时,轮虫种群密度迅速提高,混交雌体百分率降低,种群高峰期延长。不论是添加维生素E还是维生素B_(12),卵雌比的总体变化趋势基本-致:卵雌比的最大值,均出现在接种适应期过后的种群加速增长期,种群密度最大时卵雌比较低;混交雌体百分率,随种群密度增加呈上升趋势。4.不同浓度稀土元素影响萼花臂尾轮虫种群密度、混交雌体百分率和卵雌比均有影响。15 ℃时,稀土元素对轮虫种群增长具有明显的促进作用,随着稀土元素含量的增加,种群密度随之上升,后代混交百分率随着种群数量的增加而呈逐渐上升趋势,最适浓度为0.005 mg 1~(-1)。在该浓度下,最高种群密度为52.40ind. ml~(-1),平均携卵率量高于其它浓度组,混交率居中:25 ℃时,稀土适宜浓度为0.001 mg 1~(-1),在该浓度下,种群密度最大,为92.4ind. ml~(-1)、混交率较低,平均携卵量居中,种群高峰期持续时间延长;30 ℃时,添加0.005 mg 1~(-1)稀土元素,可使种群在短时间内急剧上升,远高于对照组,但高峰期持续时间较短;而0.010 mg 1~(-1)对种群增长具抑制作用。三种不同温度实验表明,15 ℃和25 ℃时,稀土元素对种群增长均有促进作用;30 ℃时,低浓度稀土可促进种群增长,高浓度则有抑制作用。5.利用藻类-轮虫-鱼类共存同一生态系统中,并使鱼类和轮虫隔离进行生态培养时,能提高轮虫种群密度,延长种群高峰期。加入泥鳅的培养缸中,轮虫种群密度可达到200 ind. ml~(-1)以上,且能维持10天之久;加入罗非鱼的培养缸中,轮虫种群密度超过100 ind. ml~(-1)的时间可达10天左右, 单纯利用藻类培养轮虫时,种群密度较低,且维持时间较短。实验结果表明:利用生态工程原理培养轮虫,可能为轮虫商品化生产提供一条新捷径。
英文摘要: Reproductive biology of Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotatoria: monogononta) was studied in laboratory by a series of experiments during 1994 to 1997. 1. Single rotifers and groups of 2, 4 and 8 individuals were grown at densities of 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 ind.ml~(-1) by placing single rotifers in 1.0, 0.5 and 0.25 ml and groups of 2, 4 and 8 individuals in 2.0ml medium, respectively. The result indicated that in single culture, mean numbers of eggs produced per mother female were 12.0, 13.8. and 7.8 respectively; percentage of mictic female in the offspring was 46.38%, 53.49% and 55.83%, respectively. In group culture, the mean numbers of eggs were 8.7, 3.1, and 2.65, respectively, and the percentage of mictic females in the offspring was 41.70%, 53.59% and 54.26%, respectively. The mean numbers of eggs decreased and percentages of mictic female in the offspring increased with the increase of rotifer density both in single culture and in group culture. The density of mother females affected the percentage of mictic females in the offsprings significantly (p < 0.05). The mean numbers of eggs produced per female grown in media containing different concentrations of Oocystis elliptica were less than 4.0. The percentage of mictic female in the offspring decreased from 36.11% to 12.50% while the concentration of Oocystis elliptica increased from 0.25 * 106cells/ml to 2.0 * 10~6cells/ml. In media containing Chlorella pyrenoidosa, mean numbers of eggs produced per female increased from 6.0 to 11.4 when concentration of algae increased from 0.25 * 10~6cells/ml to 2.0 * 10~6cells/ml. Percentages of mictic females in the offspring decreased from 23.06% to 4.58%. The mean numbers of eggs decreased and percentages of mictic female in the offspring increased when the concentration of algae increased beyond 8.0 * 10~6cells/ml. The mean eggs produced per female cultured on mixed algae, (mixed Chlorella pyrenoidosa with equal quantity of Oocystis elliptica), were less than 5.0. Results suggest that Chlorella pyrenoidosa is favorable to the reproduvtion of Brachionus calyciflorus at concentration of 2.0 * 10~6cells/ml in period of culturing. The mean number of eggs produced per female in culture that underwent sudden cold shock (SS) treatment for 2hr. was 10.8; in culture which underwent gradual cold shock ( GS ) treatment, it was 9.2. The percentages of mictic female in the offspring increased comparing with the control ( C ). Analysis results showed that there was significant difference between SS and C (P < 0.05) and no significant difference between GS and SS, GS and C (p > 0.05). 2. The cumulative hatching rate of resting eggs that were stored in media where they were formed was higher than that in inorganic medium at different temperatures. The hatching rate was highest in filtered lake water at 30 ℃ (65%) .Cumulative hatching rate of resting eggs produced by Brachionus calycifiorus cultured on Chlorella pyrenoidosa was higher than those cultured on mixed algae at different temperatures. The cumulative hatching rate of resting egg stored at 5 ℃ decreased rapidly with time , being 60% to 73% for 10 ~ 60 days, 25% for 360 days, and 13% for 540 days. Light was shown not necessary for hatching of Brachionus calycifiorus resting eggs. 3. Population densities of Brachionus calycifiorus mictic female (in percentage) changed with the variation of concentration of vitamin E and vitamin B_(12), and temperature. Densities and egg ratio of rotifer cultured in media containing 10, 40 and 80ng ml~(-1) vitamin E increased at 15 ℃. Inhibiting effect on population growth, however, was demonstrated when the concentration of vitamin E went beyond 100 ng ml~(-1) at 15 ℃. Maximal density of rotifer attained 236 ind.ml~(-1). In media containing 40 ng ml~(-1) of vitamin E at 25 ℃. Time period of high densities (higher than 100ind. ml~(-1)) was extended at 25 ℃. when vitamin E was added into the culture media, maximal densities of rotifers exceeded 100 ind. ml~(-1) in all experimental groups at 30 ℃. Rotifer densities were highest at concentration of 100 ng ml~(-1) of vitamin B~(12) at 15 ℃. Densities and egg ratio of rotifer increased quickly, and percentages of mictic female decreased in media with different concentration of vitamin B_(12) at 25 ℃. When 20ng ml~(-1) to 80 ng ml~(-1) vitamin B_(12) were added into culturing media, rotifer densities increased rapidly and mictic female percentages decreased at 30 ℃. 4. Population density, egg ratio, and percentage of mictic female produced by Brachionus calyciflorus cultured in different concentrations of rare earth-element (REE) were studied at 15 ℃, 25 ℃ and 30 ℃, respectively. The results indicate that the population densities of rotifer increase with the increase of concentration of REE at 15 ~C. Optimum concentration was 0.005 mg L~(-1) at 15 ℃. Maximal population density of rotifer attained to 92.4 ind.ml~(-1) at this concentration of REE. At 25 ℃, the densities of rotifer increased quickly at concentration of 0.001mgL~(-1); they were higher and the percentage of mictic female was lower than in others. Although the rotifer population density increased quickly in short term at concentration of 0.005 mg L~(-1) at 30 ℃, the duration of high density was cut down. The rotifer population density decreased at the REE concentration of 0.010 mgL~(-1). 5. Brachionus calyciflorus cultured together with Tilapia nilotica could get higher rotifer production and prolong the duration of its population peak. The density of rotifer exceeded 200ind ml~(-1), and lasted 10 days. When rotifer was cultured with Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, the population density of rotifer was lower than the former, and the duration of density higher than 100 ind.ml~(-1) was 10 days. The result shows that it will be a shortcut for culturing rotifer by means of the principle of ecological engineering.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12510
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

Files in This Item:
File Name/ File Size Content Type Version Access License
萼花臂尾轮虫繁殖生物学研究.pdf(6957KB)----暂不开放-- 联系获取全文

Recommended Citation:
萼花臂尾轮虫繁殖生物学研究.杨家新[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,1997.20-25
Service
Recommend this item
Sava as my favorate item
Show this item's statistics
Export Endnote File
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[杨家新]'s Articles
CSDL cross search
Similar articles in CSDL Cross Search
[杨家新]‘s Articles
Related Copyright Policies
Null
Social Bookmarking
Add to CiteULike Add to Connotea Add to Del.icio.us Add to Digg Add to Reddit
所有评论 (0)
暂无评论
 
评注功能仅针对注册用户开放,请您登录
您对该条目有什么异议,请填写以下表单,管理员会尽快联系您。
内 容:
Email:  *
单位:
验证码:   刷新
您在IR的使用过程中有什么好的想法或者建议可以反馈给我们。
标 题:
 *
内 容:
Email:  *
验证码:   刷新

Items in IR are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

 

 

Valid XHTML 1.0!
Copyright © 2007-2017  中国科学院水生生物研究所 - Feedback
Powered by CSpace