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题名: 武汉东湖和苏格兰Leven湖浮游甲壳动物的生态学研究
作者: 杨宇峰
答辩日期: 1997
导师: 刘建康 ; 黄祥飞
专业: 水生生物学
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 东湖 ; 甲壳动物生态 ; 长期变化 ; 比较研究 ; 种类组成 ; 现存量 ; 体长频度分布 ; 捕食性桡足类 ; 虹鳟
摘要: 武汉东湖和苏格兰Leven湖是两个在地理位置、气候、湖泊形态测量、营养水平和渔业方式等方面均有很大差异的湖泊。作者根据近年对这两个湖泊的研究,并结合以往的历史资料,对东湖和Leven湖的浮游甲壳动物生态学进行了较深入的研究。1 东湖浮游甲壳动物群落结构的长期变化 根据1962-1963,1973-1974,1979-1996年在武汉东湖进行的调查资料,考察了三十多年来在东湖两个代表性采样站(I、II)上甲壳动物的种类组成、现存量及体长的长期变化。 结果表明,从60年代至90年代,浮游甲壳动物种类数逐渐减少。枝角类由60年代的55种减少至90年代的11种.桡足类由14种减少到7种.I、II站在种类组成上的差别趋于消失。除了甲壳动物种类数减少外,优势种的变化也极为明显.80年代中期以来,微型裸腹.潘和短尾秀体潘已取代透明溞和隆线溞-亚种成为东湖I、II站的优势枝角类,近邻剑水蚤取代广布中剑水蚤成为I、II站的优势桡足类.1987年以来,枝角类的数量和生物量下降明显,在1962-1986年和1987-1996年这两个时段里枝角类年平均数量和年平均生物量有显著差异,特别是溞类的差异最为明显.东湖I、Ⅱ站潘类年平均密度(YD,ind./I)与鱼产量(Y,kg/hm~2)呈显著的负相关(P1 mm的枝角类和桡足类的频度均显著高于5-10月的频度.体长>1.4mm的桡足类在11-4月的频度也明显高于5-10月;而I、II站大于1.4mm的枝角类在11-4月和5-10月几乎没有差异,III、lV站的枝角类仍以11-4月较高。大于1mm的枝角类个体数以III、IV站较多,而大于1mm的桡足类则以I、Il站较多.3近邻剑水蚤和广布中剑水蚤对浮游动物的摄食 1995年6-9月和1996年10-12月,作者研究了近邻剑水蚤和广布中剑水蚤对浮游动物的摄食并测定了几种常见浮游动物的游泳速度.结果表明作为捕食者的近邻剑水蚤游泳速度最快,其次为广布中剑水蚤,再次为其它甲壳动物,轮虫运动速度最慢.一系列摄食实验结果表明,两种剑水蚤均能捕获和摄食实验所提供的所有浮游动物.猎物受攻击的部位发生在头部、背部和腹部。近邻剑水蚤对小型和大型裸腹溞的摄食率分别为0.48和0.29 prey/pred./day,广布中剑水蚤分别为0.54和0.35 prey/pred./day.捕食者对小型猎物的摄食率显著高于大型猎物.摄食率还随着猎物浓度的增加而增加,但浓度过高摄食率反而下降.此外,捕食者的摄食率与水温和光强变化有关.通过对试验围圈和东湖甲壳动物的野外调查,证实了近邻剑水蚤和广布中剑水蚤在密度较高时,通过摄食作用对其它浮游动物的下行效应明显.4东湖溞类的实验生态 研究结果表明,东湖透明溞、隆线溞-亚种和蚤状溞的体长(BS)和复眼直径(ED)之间均有显著的相关关系,其回归方程为:透明溞: BS = 12.2 + 14.4ED 隆线溞一亚种: BS = 21.6 + 12.5ED 蚤状溞: BS = 5.97 + 11.5ED 东湖溞类休眠卵的调查结果表明,休眠卵的水平分布不均匀,以II站最多(118ind/50cm~2),I站次之(70ind./50cm~2),III、IV站最少(分别为1O和5 ind./50cmm~2).溞类休眠卵垂直分布差异很大,表层(0-5cm)最多,15-20cm以下没有发现溞类的休眠卵.通过对12个年度有关数据的分析,发现东湖I、II站叶绿素a年平均浓度(ug/l)与溞类年平均密度(YD)(ind/l)均呈显著负相关(P<0.05);1995-1996年东湖III站叶绿素a月平均浓度与溞类的月平均密度(MD)呈显著负相关(P
英文摘要: Lake Donghu, Wuhan and Loch Leven, Scotland are different in geographical position, climate, lake morphometric data, trophic level and fishery, etc. The ecology of crustacean zooplankton in the two lakes was studied by field investigations and experiments, also, some long-term historic data from the lakes was used for the studies. 1. Long-term changes in crustacean zooplankton community in Lake Donghu. From the data of crustacean zooplankton surveys made in 1962-1963, 1973-1974, 1979-1996 at Stations I and II in Lake Donghu, the author analyses the long-term changes in species composition, standing crop and body-size of crustaceans. The species number of cladocerans decreased from 55 (1960's) to 27 (1980's) and to 11 (1990's); the species number of copepods decreased from 14 (1960's) to 10 (1980's) to 7 (1990's) at Stations I and II. Difference of species composition tends to disappear at the two sampling stations. From the mid-1980's on, the dominant crustaceans have been changing obviously. Daphnia hyalina and D. carinata ssp were replaced by Moina micrura and Diaphanosoma brachyurum at Stations I and II in Cladocera, respectively. Cyclops vicinus replaced Mesocyclops leuckarti to become the dominant copepod. Densities and biomass of cladocera decreased markedly from 1987 on. Annual average densities and biomass of cladocerans show statistically significant differences between 1962-1986 and 1987-1996 (P < 0.05). Annual average densities (YD, ind./I) of Daphnia (Station I + Station II) were negatively correlated with fish yield (Y, kg/hm~2). The regression equation is: YD = 62.9583 - 0.0619 Y The standing crop of copepods was markedly higher in the early and middle 1980's. Before 1987, the standing crop was higher at Station I than that at Station II, whilst the reverse results were observed afterwards (1989 excluded). From the 1980's on, annual average body-size of Cladocera and Calanoida decreased with years, but annual average body-size of Cylopoida increased with years. In the same years, average body-size of Copepoda during May-October was shorter than that during January - April and November - December. 2 Comparative studies on ecology of crustacean zooplankton in main regions of Lake Donghu. Comparison of ecology of crustacean zooplankton was examined by a three-year (1994-1996) field investigation at Stations I, II, III and IV in Lake Donghu. Results showed densities of Daphnia at Stations I and II were markedly lower than those at Stations III and IV (P < 0.05). Cyclop svicinus was predominant copepod at Stations I and II during 1994-1996. C. vicinus replaced M. leuckarti in 1995 (Station III), and in 1996 (Station IV) to become the dominant copepod. Size-frequency distributions showed the frequency of Cladocera (>1 mm) and Copepoda (>1mm and >1.4 mm) was higher during January - April and November - December than that during May - October at the 4 sampling stations in the 3 research years. The frequency of Cladocera (>1.4mm) was almost the same between Stations I and II, but it was higher during January-April and November-December than that during May-October at Stations III and IV. Frequency of cladocerans (>1mm) is higher at Stations III and IV than that at Stations I and II; frequency of copepods (>1mm) is higher at Stations I and II than that at Stations III and IV. 3 Feeding of Cyclops vicinus and Mesocyclops leuckarti on zooplankton Feeding of Cyclops vicinus and Mesocyclops leuckarti on zooplankton was examined by a series of feeding experiments during May-September of 1995 and October-December of 1996. Study results indicated that the two cyclopoids can capture and eat all prey types provided from Lake Donghu. Parts of prey attacked were head, dorsal and ventral part of body. Variable but significant changes in feeding rates were found in various prey types, body-size, concentration, water temperature and light intensity. C. vicinus and M. leuckarfi prefer small-sized zooplankton to the large-sized individuals. Also, the feeding effect of C. vicinus and M. leuckarti was evaluated in experimental enclosure and in Lake Donghu in 1995 and 1996. 4. Experimental ecology of Daphnia in Lake Donghu 3 Daphnia species, D. hyafina, D. carinata ssp and D. pulex were found in Lake Donghu. Body-size of Daphnia (BS, um) has a statistically significant correlation (p < 0.05) with eye diameter (ED, um). Densities of resting eggs of Daphnia were the highest at Station II (118ind./50cm~2), lower successively at Station I (70ind./50cm~2) and III (10ind./50cm~2), and came to the lowest at Station IV (5ind./50cm~2). Vertical distributions of resting eggs of Daphnia within 0-15 cm sediments was only found at Station I and II. Densities of Daphnia hatched from resting eggs were the highest at Station II and Station I in 1994, 1996, respectively. Results demonstrate the possibility of re-establishment of Daphnia population from resting eggs at Stations I and II. A 12-year data analysis showed annual average concentration of Chl-a (ug/l) was negative correlated with annual average density of Daphnia (YD, ind./I) at Stations I and II (P < 0.05). A negative correlation was found between concentration of Chl-a (ug/l) and monthly average densities of Daphnia (MD, ind./l) at Stations III (P < 0.05) and IV during 1995-1996. Lake water transparency (SD, cm) was positively corelated with annual average densities (YD, ind./l) of Daphnia (12 years) at Station I and II (P < 0.05). The regression equations showed Daphnia can feed efficiently on phytoplankton, decrease concentration of Chl-a, increase water transparency, improve water quality. The reason that Daphnia tends to disappear is considered to be related closely with the dramatic decrease in macrophytes and great increase in fish stocking (silver carp and bighead carp) and the aggravation of lake eutrophication. Ecological importance and strategies of re-establishment of Daphnia population size in the lake are discussed. 5. Studies on crustacean zooplankton in Loch Leven, Scotland Species composition, changes in crustacean zooplankton, especially changes in densities, size-frequency distributions and body shape of Daphnia during May-September of 1982,1992, 1993 and 1995 were examined in Loch Leven, a Scottish eutrophic lake. The results showed that Daphnia densities tended to decrease after the introduction of rainbow trout to the loch. The size-frequency distribution of Daphnia changed little during the research period. Higher percentages of individuals with high helmets appeared in 1982, 1993 and 1995. Analysis of gut contents of rainbow trout demonstrated apparent size-selective predation for Daphnia 1.5 mm in length or larger. The research results suggest that introduction of rainbow trout had little effect on Daphnia in Loch Leven. Low stocking rate of fish may be one of the important reasons. 6. The research results of ecology of crustacean zooplankton in Lake Donghu and Loch Leven showed that the changes in community structure of crustacean zooplankton especially in population of Daphnia were determined largely by fish in Lake Donghu, with high stocking rate of planktivorous fish, and also by the feeding of predatory copepods on Daphnia and other crustaceans; food resources, temperature, etc, were key factors causing a stable Daphnia population in Loch Leven because of the quite low stocking rate of fish.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12504
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
武汉东湖和苏格兰Leven湖浮游甲壳动物的生态学研究.杨宇峰[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,1997.20-25
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