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题名: 长江中游湖泊及滇池浮游生物群落结构及其与环境因子的关系
作者: 吴利
答辩日期: 2009-06-02
导师: 余育和
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 水生生物研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 吸管虫 ; 浮游生物群落 ; 环境因子 ; 物种组成 ; 遗传多样性 ; RAPD ; PCR-DGGE
其他题名: Plankton community structure and its relationship with environmental factors in the middle Yangtze lakes and Lake Dianchi
摘要: 浮游生物(plankton)是淡水生态系统中一类极重要的生物,一般包括浮游植物(生产者)、浮游动物(消费者)和浮游细菌(分解者)等功能类群。浮游生物能灵敏地响应环境的变化,是环境状况的重要指示生物,因而浮游生物群落结构的时空变化规律及其与环境的关系一直是水体生态学重要的研究内容。然而,由于浮游生物并不都具有明显的外部形态特征,致使传统的形态鉴定技术已经不能满足人们对浮游生物的进一步认识。近年来,各种DNA指纹技术被广泛用于群落水平的生态学研究,并揭示了丰富的微生物多样性。本文运用形态鉴定、RAPD和PCR-DGGE指纹技术在时间尺度和空间尺度上研究了长江中游湖泊和滇池浮游生物群落结构特征,并探讨了其与环境因子的关系。主要研究结果如下: 1. 对采自于中国洞庭湖和汉阳墨水湖的5种吸管虫做了形态学报道,均为国内新纪录; 2. 牛山湖浮游生物群落DNA 指纹结构与环境主要限制因子总磷(TP)的含量是密切相关的,而与物种组成有一定的相关性,可能因部分物种信息的缺失导致一些偏差;西凉湖浮游生物群落DNA指纹结构与理化因子及物种组成是一致的; 3. 典型对应分析(CCA)表明水温(WT)、pH、碱度(ALK)、化学需氧量(COD)、总磷(TP)和总氮(TN)与长江中游八个湖泊(保安湖、扁担塘、南北咀、武湖、鲁湖、牛山湖、肖四海和汤逊湖)浮游生物群落遗传多样性具有较好的相关性,并且它们在不同湖泊与浮游生物群落遗传多样性的相关性程度存在一定差异。 因此,就八个不同营养水平湖泊浮游生物群落遗传多样而言,生境的营养状况决定了其空间分布格局; 4. 单因素方差分析(One-way AVONA)显示滇池三个季节浮游生物群落物种组成、RAPD和PCR-DGGE指纹结构均存在显著差异(P<0.05),表明了滇池浮游生物群落结构较强的时间异质性。CCA分析表明与滇池浮游生物群落物种组成、RAPD和PCR-DGGE指纹结构相关性较强的环境因子包括总磷(TP)、总氮(TN)、五日生化需氧量(BOD5)、亚硝态氮(NO2-N)与固体悬浮物(SS),表明滇池浮游生物群落结构时间异质性主要与污染程度密切相关。此外,总氮(TN)与夏季浮游生物群落物种组成、RAPD和PCR-DGGE指纹结构相关性较强, 总磷(TP)与秋季浮游生物群落RAPD和PCR-DGGE指纹结构相关性较强。因此,本研究结果表明分子指纹技术(如RAPD和PCR-DGGE指纹技术)可能比形态鉴定更灵敏地探测浮游生物群落对环境压力的变化; 5. 与肖四海、汤逊湖、牛山湖浮游生物群落物种组成和PCR-DGGE指纹结构相关性较强的环境因子包括水温(WT)、水深(WD)、叶绿素a(Chl a)、总氮(TN)、轮虫和甲壳动物丰度。就每个湖泊而言,与浮游生物群落物种组成和PCR-DGGE指纹结构时空变化相关性较强的环境因子相似,表明PCR-DGGE指纹技术可以表征浮游生物群落组成并揭示其与环境因子的关系;而就三个湖泊整体而言,与浮游生物群落结构相关性较强的环境因子在各湖泊间存在差异,而这种差异主要归因于各湖泊营养水平的不同。
英文摘要: Free-living planktonic organisms are a fundamental component of aquatic ecosystems, being comprised of a diverse assemblage of organisms commonly grouped as phytoplankton, zooplankton or bacteria. Because plankton are often quite sensitive to changes in the environment, they can be used to assess water quality and trophic status. Therefore, spatiotemporal dynamics of plankton community structure and its relationship with environmental factors are the importance research of aquatic ecology at all times. Like most organisms, plankton have traditionally been identified by their morphological characteristics. However, morphology-based taxonomy can be difficult since many of these organisms lack distinguishing features. Recent advances in molecular biology have provided new opportunities for studies in microbial ecology and unveiled abundant microbial diversity. This study used morphological method, RAPD and PCR-DGGE fingerprinting to characterize the plankton community structure in the middle Yangtze lakes and Lake Dianchi, and explored its relationship with environmental factors. These results are as follows: 1. Five species of freshwater suctorid ciliates from Lake Dongting and Lake Moshui were described elaborately, and these species are first records to China; 2. DNA fingerprinting structure of plankton community in Lake Niushan was closely related to total phosphorus (TP), and it was also corresponded with the species composition to some extent, the discrepancy might due to losing some species information; the DNA fingerprinting structure of plankton community in Lake Xiliang was closely related to species composition and environmental factors; 3. In the eight lakes (Lake Baoan, Lake Biandantang, Lake Nanbeizui, Lake Wuhu, Lake Luhu, Lake Niushan, Lake Xiaosihai, Lake Tangxun), temperature (WT), pH, alkalinity (ALK), chemical oxygen demanded (COD), TP and total nitrogen (TN) were strongly correlated with the PCR-DGGE fingerprints, and the factors that demonstrated a strong correlation to the PCR-DGGE fingerprints of the plankton community differed among lakes, suggesting that differences in the PCR-DGGE fingerprints were mainly due to lake trophic status; 4. In Lake Dianchi, species composition, RAPD and PCR-DGGE fingerprints of plankton community were significantly different (P<0.05) among seasons, revealing the high temporal heterogeneity of plankton community structure in Lake Dianchi. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that the environmental factors significantly related to plankton community in Lake Dianchi included TP, TN, five-days biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N) and suspended solid (SS), suggesting that the temporal heterogeneity of plankton community was closely related to high pollution of Lake Dianchi. Moreover, in summer TN was generally the main factor related to the species composition, RAPD and PCR-DGGE fingerprints; in autumn TP was generally the main factor related to the RAPD and PCR-DGGE fingerprints. The present study suggested that molecular techniques (such as RAPD and PCR- DGGE fingerprinting) might be more sensitive than traditional morphological analysis to monitor the response of plankton community to environmental perturbations; 5. In Lake Xiaosihai, Lake Niushan and Lake Tangxun, CCA indicated that WT, water depth (WD), chlorophyll a (Chl a), TN, abundance of rotifers and crustaceans were strongly correlated with the plankton community structures. As for each lake, environmental factors significantly related to PCR-DGGE fingerprints were similar to species composition, suggesting that PCR-DGGE fingerprinting was a promising tool in characterizing plankton community. As for the three lakes, environmental factors correlating with plankton community structures differed among lakes, which was mainly due to the difference of lake trophic status.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12490
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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长江中游湖泊及滇池浮游生物群落结构及其与环境因子的关系.吴利[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2009.20-25
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